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2018考研英语一试题解析

2017-12-25 16:09

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                  2018年考研英语一阅读理解解析(王松)                

Reading Comprehension

PART A

Text 1: 

文章结构:问题分析建议型

文章中心:自动化威胁中产阶级

文章难度:容易

Q21:细节题

选择:D. Middle-class workers

解析:A. leading politicians 无中生有

      B. Low-wage laborers 反

      C. Robot owners.     反

      D. Middle-class workers正确,文章的第一段和第二段都提到受到威胁的是中产阶级,而且这个选项内容在前2段也是最多提到的(多>少原则),而且符合中心思想(贴近中心原则)

 

Q22: 推理题

选择:C. Issues arising from automation need to be tackled

解析:文章第三段的前大半段都在讲技术进步长期会带来的好处。但是答案在这一段最后一句话But之后,讲的是中期中产阶级面对的问题也要解决。(转折后>转折前原则)

 

Q23: 细节题:

选择:A. creative potential

解析:定位在第四段第二句话,原文原词“more on creativity…”(多>少原则)。其他三个选项在这段完全没有提到。

 

Q24: 细节题

选择:D. preventing the income gap from widening

解析:定位在第六段第一句话,D选项的大部分词都是原文原词,内容也相符。其他三个选项在这段完全没有提到。

 

Q25:细节题

选择:B. possible solutions to it

解析:答案在文章尾端的最后一句话But后面,提出了“要采取一些帮助工人的政策”(转折后>转折前原则)。也符合我们的最常见的一种“总分型文章”结构:问题分析建议型,所以文章最后一段为建议。

 

Text 2:    

文章结构:现象分析型

文章中心:年轻人对社交媒体的不信任,而产生的评判性思维

文章难度:中等难度

Q26:细节题

选择:D. social media was a reliable source of news

解析:答案在定位句,第二段的第二句Yet后面(转折后>转折前原则),也体现了中心,年轻人怀疑在媒体上看到的东西(贴近中心原则)

 

Q27: 解释题:

选择:A. sharpen削尖,磨炼

解析:答案就在定位句,也可以根据前后文的中心思想分析出来。人们不信任媒体信息,所以他们就在不断地“sharpen”他们的媒体文字处理技能。(解释题“上下逻辑原则”)(贴近中心原则)

 

Q28: 细节题

选择:B. verify news by referring to diverse resources

解析:定位句有“distributed trust to verify stories”。定位句的下一句“cross-check sourcesdifferent perspectives”都在表达,人们会从不同的消息来源去确定信息的真实性。(同义替换原则)

 

Q29: 细节题

选择: C. readers misinterpretation

解析:定位句明确说了“top reason is reader error, more so than …”,说明假新闻的主要原因是reader,没有reader的两个选项都在more than后面,所以不选(大>小原则)。定位句下一句话的原词“misinterpretation”。

 

Q30: 主旨题

选择:A. A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online

解析:原文的前2段找中心,在第二段的第二句话Yet后面。P1P2转折后找中心原则)

 

Text 3:

文章结构:问题分析建议型

文章中心:医疗和人工智能合作引发的担心

文章难度:中等难度

Q31: 细节题

选择:B. It failed to pay due attention to patients right.

解析:根据题目的agreement找到定位句为第一段尾句,“little accout of the patientsright…”确定答案,定位句原词。

 

Q32: 细节题

选择: C. necessary adjustments

解析:定位句是第二段的第二句话“NHS has mended its ways,第三句话有具体展开了NHS是如何做出调整的。

 

Q33: 推理题

选择:D. the value of data comes from the processing of it

解析:定位在第二段的尾句But后面,It is processing gives the data value. (转折后>转折前原则;强调句为亮点原则)

 

Q34: 细节题

选择:D. the monopoly of big data by tech giants

解析:定位在第四段第四句话,What matters is a private monopoly(同义替换原则).

 

Q35: 作者态度题

选择:B. cautious

解析:首先排除ambiguous contemptuous(黑名单不选原则)

然后看文章最后一段(作者态度题定位在尾段/尾句原则),确定作者批评为主,所以不能选择appreciative 选项(负态度>正态度原则)

 

Text 4

文章结构:问题分析建议型

文章中心:USPS面对的财务危机

文章难度:中等难度

Q36: 细节题

选择:B. its rigid management

解析:定位在文章第一段,前半段讲财务危机,后半段分析了几个原因,错误选项或者无中生有,后者偷换概念,只有B选项同第一段尾句的内容同义替换。(原文列举处出题:对>错原则)

 

Q37: 细节题

选择:A. the interference from interest groups

解析:定位在第二段第一句话,同时这一段interest也反复提到。(多>少原则)

 

Q38:细节题

选择:A. removing its burden of retiree health care

解析:定位在第三段尾句。答案是这句话的The latter step,由此找到是上一句话的第二个from后面的内容,锁定答案。(代词指代还原原则)

 

Q39: 作者态度题

选择:C. discontent

解析:首先排除tolerance选项(黑名单不选原则),然后剩余选项有2个正态度,1个负态度,原文最后一段的But 后面都是在批评法律,所以选择唯一的一个discontent负态度。(可选态度词找原文正负态度原则)

 

Q40:主旨题

选择:C The USPSChronic Illness Requires a Quick Cure

解析:主旨题去文章前2段找答案,根据文章中心USPS面对的财务危机,根据文章结构问题分析建议型,就可以确认。

 

2018年考研英语一新题型解析(张燕)

 

  孩儿们,终于考完了,辛苦大家了,今年的题真是一言难尽。燕姐随便跟大家解析解析,大家随便看看。英语一的新题型应验了我的推测,跟20102011连考两年段落排序是一样的情况,2010段落排序65,难度很高,因此出题人在之后的一年2011继续考察这个题型,只不过难度有所降低。去年的排序让大家欣喜若狂,好多孩子拿了10分,今年出题人继续考排序,只不过难度增加了,幸亏考前在微博给大家公布了排序的手写版攻略,希望有帮助到你们。现公布正确答案:E(C)GA(F)BD, CF为已知段。

按照做题原则,step 1 标出已知段,提高效率;step2 判断首段,本篇首段很难判断,大写字母让人头晕目眩,也没有较明显的代词连词可做为线索;所以直接跳到step3 看已知段C段段首画出关键词(the,a,an后面的名词;of前后的名词;主语)为state,war,navy building,去各段断尾找相似的名词,发现E段结尾有navy,war,state(of),且为阐述的意思为第一次出现,所以确定41E; step4C的结尾花关键词,building,nation,politician,historic event, 去各段首找,发现G段首有first提示他的历史来源,所以42Gstep5G段结尾,发现G结尾句太长线索很少,所以跳到另一个已知段FF首句画关键词construction,building,去各段结尾找相似词,发现A段结尾有construction1次,所以43Astep5剩下两段按时间推理即可。最后一段最高级总结。

总体题难度4克星,信息杂乱,考察点广泛,有同学拿时间顺序推出来的,是一种铤而走险的方式,但是能对3个。考完了大家就别想太多了,好好放松下~期待大家的好消息。以下是真题:

A. In December of 1869, Congress appointed a commission to select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department Building. The commission was also to consider possible arrangements for the War and Navy Departments. To the horror of some who expected a Greek Revival twin of the Treasury Building to be erected on the other side of the White House, the elaborate French Second Empire style design by Alfred Mullett was selected, and construction of a building to house all three departments began in June of 1871.

  B. Completed in 1875, the State Department's south wing was the first to be occupied, with its elegant four-story library (completed in 1876), Diplomatic Reception Room, and Secretary's office decorated with carved wood, Oriental rugs, and stenciled wall patterns. The Navy Department moved into the east wing in 1879, where elaborate wall and ceiling stenciling and marquetry floors decorated the office of the Secretary.

  C. The State, War, and Navy Building, as it was originally known, housed the three Executive Branch Departments most intimately associated with formulating and conducting the nation's foreign policy in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century-the period when the United States emerged as an international power. The building has housed some of the nation's most significant diplomats and politicians and has been the scene of many historic events.

  D. Many of the most celebrated national figures have participated in historical events that have taken place within the EEOB's granite walls. Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford, and George H. W. Bush all had offices in this building before becoming president. It has housed 16 Secretaries of the Navy, 21 Secretaries of War, and 24 Secretaries of State. Winston Churchill once walked its corridors and Japanese emissaries met here with Secretary of State Cordell Hull after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

  E. The Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB) commands a unique position in both the national history and the architectural heritage of the United States. Designed by Supervising Architect of the Treasury, Alfred B. Mullett, it was built from 1871 to 1888 to house the growing staffs of the State, War, and Navy Departments, and is considered one of the best examples of French Second Empire architecture in the country.

  F. Construction took 17 years as the building slowly rose wing by wing. When the EEOB was finished, it was the largest office building in Washington, with nearly 2 miles of black and white tiled corridors. Almost all of the interior detail is of cast iron or plaster; the use of wood was minimized to insure fire safety. Eight monumental curving staircases of granite with over 4,000 individually cast bronze balusters are capped by four skylight domes and two stained glass rotundas.

  G. The history of the EEOB began long before its foundations were laid. The first executive offices were constructed between 1799 and 1820. A series of fires (including those set by the British in 1814) and overcrowded conditions led to the construction of the existing Treasury Building. In 1866, the construction of the North Wing of the Treasury Building necessitated the demolition of the State Department building.

41.  C 42.  43.  F  44   45.

 

 

2018年考研英语一翻译解析(任婧)

 

2018的英语一翻译节选自THE FACTS ABOUT SHAKESPHERE的第五章THE ELIZABETHAN DRAMA,出题人对原文略做改编,替换掉了一些较为生僻的词汇。难度系数基本与近年真题持平。

词汇方面:一词多义“forms”,专有名词“Greece”,“Rome”场景词“comedy”,“tragedy”衍生词“ignorant”,词组“hosts of”等均为课上重复多次或延伸拓展过的内容,保证词汇量的基础上,再结合介词优先原则与从句处理法则基本可以翻译通顺。

Shakespeare’s life time was coincident with a period of extraordinary activity and achievement in the drama.(46) By the date of his birth, Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy.

46解析:“By the date of his birth,”直译是“到他出生那天为止,”后边谈到欧洲的戏剧发展状况,也就是“在他出生之前,欧洲的戏剧发展是什么状况”,因此该处译文需做出调整。“Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama,”直译是“欧洲目睹着宗教戏剧的消失”,英文多用时间或地点作主语,可这并不符合中文的表述习惯,中文更偏向于“某物/某事在某地如何了”这种表述方式。最后一段遵循介词优先原则需要略微调整一下语序即可翻译通顺。

译文:在他出生那天之前,宗教戏剧在欧洲逐渐消失,并且在经典悲剧和经典喜剧的激发下,欧洲产生了各种新形式的戏剧。

These new forms were at first mainly written by scholars and performed by amateurs, but in England, as everywhere else in western Europe, the growth of a class of professional actors was threatening to make the drama popular, whether it should be new or old, classical or medieval, literary or farcical. Court, school organizations of amateurs, and the traveling actors were all rivals in supplying a widespread desire for dramatic entertainment; and (47) no boy who went a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.

47解析:whowhich是定语从句标志引导词,根据课上讲过的定语从句处理方式即可翻译通顺,“a form of literature”经典A of B 结构,此时不难看出form为名词词性,且literature无生命,form一定不取“形态”的含义,所以该区域译为“一种文学形式”。

译文:任何上过文法学校的学生不可能忽视的是,戏剧是一种文学形式,它给希腊和罗马带来过荣耀,迟早也会给英国带来荣耀。

When Shakespeare was twelve years old, the first public playhouse was built in London. For a time literature showed no interest in this public stage. Plays aiming at literary distinction were written for school or court, or for the choir boys of St. Paul’s and the royal chapel, who, however, gave plays in public as well as at court. (48) but the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literature ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood.

48解析:prosper直译为“繁荣”,但此处需结合语境做出一词转译的调整。“university men with literature ambitions”根据介词优先原则,with引导处提前翻译,该区域译为“有文学抱负的大学生”,“means of livelihood”此处means作名词,取“手段”“方式”之意。

译文:但是专业的剧团有其固定的剧院进行演出,看客络绎不绝,有文学抱负的大学生迅速投身到这些剧院以此谋生。

By the time Shakespeare was twenty-five, Lyly, Peele, and Greene had made comedies that were at once popular and literary; Kyd had written a tragedy that crowded the pit; and Marlowe had brought poetry and genius to triumph on the common stage - where they had played no part since the death of Euripides. (49)A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouses established, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.

49解析:create一词多义,结合语境,取的是“产生”含义。public playhouse译为“公共剧场”。alliance with“与……联盟”转译为“与……合作”。

译文:一种本土文学剧产生了,与早已建立的公共剧场合作,至少,其中一些伟大传统就此出现。

  The development of the Elizabethan drama for the next twenty-five years is of exceptional interest to students of literary history, for in this brief period we may trace the beginning, growth, blossoming, and decay of many kinds of plays, and of many great careers. We are amazed today at the mere number of plays produced, as well as by the number of dramatists writing at the same time for this London of two hundred thousand inhabitants. (50)To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.

50解析:hosts of“许多”,probably“也许”

译文:为了认识到戏剧有多么伟大,我们要铭记在心的是,许多戏剧作品已不存在,也许名家完整的作品也难以幸存。

 

2018年考研英语一写作解析(李海斌)

2018年考研英语刚刚结束, 想必大家考的都很好, 无忧班冲刺点题班上第6篇文章, 大班点睛班的第7篇文章创新,都是课上重点讲解的内容。

现在我们从三个角度:立意,论证逻辑,结构三个角度分析一下今年的大作文。但不管怎样去立意,每样安排结构,怎样论证,前提是较好的英语语言基础,自圆其说。

关于立意:立意就是主题,每个同学在看到图片的时候总是害怕跑题,其实这一点大家不用过于担心,每年考试的图片上面都有文字,2017年和2018年这两年的图片,可写的立意较多,下面大家看一下今年的题目。

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the picture below. In your essay, you should

(1) describe the picture briefly

(2) interpret the meaning, and

(3) give your comments

Write your answer neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

从图片的文字可以看出,一个人在电脑上进在选课,然后有两组文字,分别是知识新,重创新,有难度…; 给分高,易通过,作业少…; 第一种思维角度:选课选什么呢?有创新的,新知识的,有难度的,易通过的,得高分的,作业少,怎样满足学生的需求呢?便想到写创新了。 第二种思维角度:有电脑,肯定有网,有的学生要选知识新,重创新,有难度的课程而有的学生要选给分高,易通过,作业的课程,便可得立意:网络学习的利与弊 第三种思维角度:同学们可能会给图片界定个场景,那就是大家每年在学校选课,有的学生要选过的,有的学生要学到知识的,故而纠结,便可立意:大学选修课现状,学生该作出怎样的选择,即如何选课. 以上三种立意都是正确的,不管怎样立意,只要你自圆其说即可。

关于论证逻辑:在立意主题后,大家都要论证自己的观点,每个人写作文的时候会采用不同论证方法,如举例论法,原因分析法,正反论证法等等。每种立意,大家所采用的论证方法可能不一, 如立意创新,建议大家写举例论证法,关于创新的例证很多,如屠呦呦,袁隆平,Bill Gates, Steven Jobs等等都可,举例后就说我应该用创新的手段改变今天教与学的课堂模式;如立意网络学习的利弊,建议大家写正反论证法,分析e-learning的好处和坏处,好处很多,坏处就是缺乏监管和自律,总想选一些容易过的课程;如立意如何选课,建议用原因分析法,分析现状,重点写,如何选课才收获最大。

关于结构:结构是合理的安排文章内容,有层次的展开自己文章,一般大家会写 “三段式” 或 “四段式”, 只要按照题目的要求去安排段落即可,每年要求基本一致(1) describe the pictures briefly (2) interpret the meaning (3) give you comment 按照题目要求,大家的写法会很宽广,只要描述图片,解释意义,给出观点即可。每种论证手段都有其优势,也有其劣势。

综上所述,一篇好的文章语言要漂亮和流畅,立意正确,论证逻辑合理,结构清晰才是一篇好文,才是高分文,附全文如下,请大家指证

立意:E-learning(正反论证法)

By carefully glancing at the picture, we easily find that it displays a set of common scenario where a man, a learner in front of a computer, is selecting his courses online to study this term but also making a difficult decision between courses with new, innovation and complex knowledge and those with high score, easy passing and less homework. Evidently, what the picture implies is that e-learning is a rose with thorns, which has both superiorities and inferiorities.

With the updating of technology and teaching mode, e-learning has marched into every learner’s sight. It goes without saying that e-learning plays an indispensable role in the process of learning for learners. As is shown in the recent statistics from an educational institution, the growth of learners or students using internet teaching system to finish courses and earn credits is so prominent with the availability of smart terminal devices in Chinese family that it will make learners enjoy more teacher resources and take more excellent lectures. Conversely, we cant attach no importance to its negative impact. For instance, students easily get certificate and diploma by accumulating credits so that they seldom explore a subject seriously and even they never appear in front of computers.

From the analyses above, we unquestionably come to a conclusion that e-learning is a double-blade sword. Thus, we might encourage students to learn knowledge on condition of attracting students to sit in front of computers to concentrate on lectures.

立意:Choice of Curricula(原因分析法)

The picture graphically portrays a pervasive phenomenon in our college campus that a man, a student in front of a computer, is making a decision which curriculum is suitable for himself, whether new, innovation and complex subjects or easy-passing, less-homework and high-score subjects. Recent few years has witnessed the great difference in choice of curricula existing in every university.

What, on earth, triggers the divergence of students in selecting curricula? It is not difficult for us to unearth some factors to account for it. The reason why some college students choose subjects with new knowledge and innovation is that they commit themselves to gaining advanced and fresh knowledge in campus, which will make them better adapt to the development and updating of society and develop a bigger competitive power after graduation to acquire more opportunities of finding a job with fat and plump salary. By the contrary, the purpose that some college students only want to acquire enough credits in university, to some extent, is the core reason why they select those subjects with easy-passing, high-score and less-homework characteristics so that they would easily pass various exams to get a diploma and some certificates.

From the analyses above, we unquestionably come to a conclusion that choice of curricula in colleges exist some inferiorities but we college students should attach importance to learning knowledge to enrich our brains instead of only getting a diploma.

立意:innovation (举例论证法)

注:课上讲过的创新(无忧冲点班,大班点睛班),小小改动就可以使用

对比如下  

The cartoon comparatively depicts a scenarios where a man, a college student in front of a computer, is selecting his courses and making a decision that he only choose some subjects with new and innovation knowledge despite of difficulties. Evidently, what the picture implies is that nothing is of more remarkable value than innovation in our reality.

In our human history, it is not difficult for us to seek for some typical examples to prove the importance of innovation. Taking Tu youyou for example, Tu Youyou, a great scientist experieing countless failures in the process of studying medicine about curing sickness “malaria, still continued to do her experiments and learn to midnight so that he finally discovered a revolutionary medicine artemisinin. It is because of her innovation and no fear of difficulties that she gained an award Nobel Prize and changed our humans destinies suffering from the tortures of diseases malaria. However, the facts in society are sometimes far from what we expected, say, in university exist some students and they only choose those easy-passing, high-score and less-homework subjects in order to acquire enough credits for a diploma, which makes them lose some opportunities of accumulating knowledge in campus. If we were not to insist on innovation, we might be eliminated by society.

From the analyses above, we firmly made a conclusion that innovation is full of superiorities for our individual prospects. Thus, we, college students, should discard the notion of getting diploma, enriching our brains by studying some new and innovation knowledge instead.

附上预测内容截图

现在我们来谈一下小作文,小作文重点是传达信息,语言要简单, 凝练和精准,重点是把事情说清楚,不产生误解,今年的题目出的还是比较传统,很单一的邀请信,题目如下:

52. Directions:

Write an email to all international experts on campus, inviting them to attend the graduation ceremony. In your email, you should include the time, place and other relevant information about the ceremony.

You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming Instead.

范文

Dear Sir or Madam,

I, on behalf of all the graduates, am cordially writing the email to you for inviting you to attend our graduation ceremony in our report hall.

Every graduate is every excited when they hear the news that you might attend the graduation ceremony and they delegate me to finish this task so what you might do firstly is to browse some relevant information on our official website about the ceremony and register your names and phone number for easily connecting you. Besides, you might wear some formal clothes and prepare a speech for graduates. Importantly, we have arranged a MPV whose palate number is 123456 to pick you up in your flat A at 8:00 a.m. on July, 9th, 2017.

Our ceremony will be held at 9:00 a.m. on July, 9th, 2017 and I will appreciate it very much that you could attend our gradation ceremony and we are looking forward to your reply.

   Yours sincerely,

                                                            Li Ming                                                            

 

附课上内容及相似预测范文

2018年考研英语一完型解析(李佳欢)

 

   考研完型英语一解析,今年完型的难度跟去年比,稍微简单一些,必选词的数量跟去年一样,对于动词的考察稍微多些,对于连词考察较往年少,答案依然遵循往年的平均分布。

 

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