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针对2016年4月托福口语新东方点题班预测大范围

2016-04-05 16:04    新东方哈尔滨学校国外考试部

口语第一

2009.10.25ML/2007.6.24ML

口语一:描述一个你喜欢与之聊天的人。

Describe a person whom you would like to talk with often (this person could be one of your close friends, family members or teachers). Explain why you would like to talk with this person and what you would talk about?

2010.3.13ML

1

What are some important effects of the worldwide availability of Internet on modern people's lives? Use specific details and examples to support your response.

2012.12.8ML/2010.9.24NA

Task1:

How would you advise somebody who was planning to come to your country to study abroad? Give details and examples to support your response. Begin your response after the beep.

2011.12.18ML

1.你朋友next semester要上一个很难的math class,他很紧张,问你有没有什么建议给他

2009.9.19NA

口语一:

版本一:日常生活depend on 比较多的tool, object…       

版本二:最喜欢的科目是什么   

2008.9.28ML/2007.8.17ML

S1

如果有计划来一次旅游,你会选择哪里    

2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

1

Which technology has made the greatest impact on people's lives in your country: airplanecomputer or television? Use specific reasons and examples to support your response.  

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口语一,Describe the greatest period of your life and explain why.      

      

2012.10.19ML

1

Choose a job lawyer, animal doctor, restaurant owner, which on you prefer    

2012.10.19ML2010.6.13ML

Task 1

朋友搬家了,让你give advice about how to make friends in a new city

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

下面哪种职业你喜欢?律师(lawyer),餐馆老板(restaurant owner),兽医(animal doctor)

Which of the following would you rather be? Lawyer, veterinarian or restaurant owner. Explain your answer in details.

2008.5.10ML

口语一:描述一个你狠崇拜但你不会选择作为自己职业的工作。describe a job you admired but you will NOT choose it yourself

2014.9.13NA

1

Talk about your favorite book when you were a child. Explain in details why you liked to read it.

2014.9.27NA

Task1:

if you have a chance to learn new things, what do you want to learn? Select one of the following and explain your ides: 1. play a sport 2. fly a plane 3. play a new instrument

2013.12.14NA

口语一:从三个职员制工作volunteer work选一个。工作一能够帮助图书馆中人用电脑查书籍,工作二把书读给小孩听,工作三把书和杂志整理到书架上

2013.9.28NA

Task1:

Nowadays many people move to cities for work and study. What advantages do moving to cities bring to people?

2011.3.26ML

1

Describe a time when you learned a new subject.

2014.11.29ML

"1.

Among studying, exercising, and going shopping, which one would you like to do alone and why

2012.12.1NA 

1

给三个方案,问你选择哪个,为啥。1. 一个recycle program 2.教小孩子种菜, 3.教小孩子怎么吃饭更健康。

2013.10.25NA  

口语一:1、学校组织学生去社区做公益活动,其中有三项任务可选,1)清洁那些littertransh 2)在公园种树和花, 3)给小朋友们讲环保知识什么的。

2013.10.19NA

口语一:

If you can have a part-time job at the university what position would you choose? A lab assistant, a campus tour guide or a library assistant? Why?

2013.12.28ML

口语一,Describe a memorable experience in a restaurant or cafe.      

2010.3.20NA

1

描述一个参加过的活动,你是否认为每个人都have a good time  

2014.8.9NA

1

Imagine that you have to stop using cell phone for a month, would that be difficult for you?

2013.5.26ML

TASK1Your friend has been offered a job that's far away from his hometown. Do you think he should take it or not? Give specific reasons and details to support your response.

2011.6.25ML

1

Describe a news article or a story that you are interested in recently. And explain why you think it was interesting. (Include reasons and details in your response.)    

2014.7.26NA

1. Which one will you learn: play a piano, swim, or repair a car?

2014.2.28NA

Task 1: Your community center now offers classes on the weekends for free. Which of the following class you will choose to take? Give reason to explain your choose. 1) A financial course to help you manage money, 2) Car maintenance and repair 3) Review of Latin-American music.  

2014.4.5NA

S1

Students attend different clubs in universities, such as science club, hiking club, etc. Which one are you interested in?

2014.4.12NA

口语一:    

Describe one benefit of using the internet?         

版本二

Talk about how cellphone has changed people's lives. Explain your answer in details. 

2014.6.28NA

Task1:

有一大堆事情需要做,怎么办

2014.8.30NA

TASK1

If one of your friends is always late for events and appointments, can you give some suggestion and advice to help him not be late next time?

2014.9.6NA

TASK1

1.Describe an important decision that you have made.

2014.9.27NA

自己和别人不一样的学习方法。

2014.10.17NA

Task1;

Please choose one of the following transportations that you consider the most enjoyable to ride: a bicycle, an automobile, or a train.

2014.11.8NA

1. Please describe one characteristic of a house or apartment that you think will make it a good place to live.      

2014.11.29NA

1.

Among study, exercise, and shopping, which one would you like to do alone and why?

2014.12.19NA

1. The university provides three kinds of service to students:

- Concerts performed by students

- Drama played by theatre students

- Lecture given by a well-known professor

Which one do you prefer? Use details and examples to explain.

2013.6.8NA

1

Which of the following do you think it's the best way to get to know a new school: joining a one-day campus tour, spending a weekend on the campus play field, or auditing lectures? 

2013.11.22NA   

口语一:版本一:Talk about what you like to do during spare time.Give specific reasons and details in your explanation.              

版本二:Your friend has a bad eating habit.What suggestions would you like to give the friend?

2013.12.20NA  

口语一:city should invest money in 1) transportation, 2) park, 3) can't recall, sorry

2009.11.14ML/2008.3.29NA

口语一:描述你生活中最难忘的一次成功以及你对它的感觉。Describe the most unforgettable success in your life and your feeling about it.

2011.2.12ML2009.10.10ML

Describe a special experience which has changed you positively. Explain how it changed you. Include reasons and details to support your response. 

2011.5.28NA

lf your friend had difficulties in mathematical exam, what would you like to suggest?        

2013.1.18NA     

1 What qualities should a leader have?

说了两点:(1)一要公平(2)二要有远见

2013.1.26NA

1

给孩子选一个课外活动,sportsmusic,还有一个啥,不记得了

2013.4.6NA

1

which is the most challenging place to work? Museum, hospital, business office.

2013.5.17NA

口語一:下面哪个学生活动对社区最有利?planting or taking care of a garden; organizing recycling program in community; organizing cleanup day in park    

2013.11.9NA            

口语一:你未来想从事什么工作

口语第二

2010.1.30NA 

2

你是否觉得it is important to study the hist0ry from ancestors

 

2009.9.19NA

口语二:

做事是喜欢刚开始就准备还是到了due day才开始准备,原因   

 

2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

2

Some people believe that it is better for children to grow up in big cities. Others believe that it is better for children to grow up in small towns or rural areas. What is your opinion and why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your response.

 

2012.10.19ML2010.6.13ML

Task 2

Some think robots are useful in the future. Some think robots will never be more useful and smarter than human.   Which do you agree

 

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

2

some answer the phone and text a message in the middle of the conversation, what do thing this behavior, good or not  

2008.5.10ML

口语二:周末是喜欢呆在家里看书搞学习还是喜欢social vs friends relax.   

 

 

2011.3.19NA/2012.12.2ML /2013.3.19NA

Task2:

Some students prefer to study in a library. Others prefer to study at home or in dormitories. Which way do you prefer and why? Include reasons and details in your response.

2013.12.14NA

口语二:选一个,帮助教授完成重要科研任务还是参加你姐姐的生日派对

 

2014.9.27NA

Task2:

do you agree that parents put more pressure on students in school than ever before

 

2013.9.28NA

Task2:

Nowadays many people move to cities for work and study. What advantages do moving to cities bring to people?

2011.3.26ML

2

Some people prefer to read or watch news every day. Other people prefer to read or watch news less regularly. Which do you prefer

 

2014.11.29ML

2.

Some people believe the government should invest money in a program designed to save and protect endangered species of animals. Others believe that money for such programs should only come from private sources. Which point of view do you agree with?

2012.12.1NA 

 

2

Question: Which do you prefer: an interesting class but very strict with scoring or a boring class that gives you high scores?

 

2011.10.14NA

2

大城市是否禁止私家车?    

2013.12.28ML

口语二,Do you agree or disagree with the statement that the most important class can't be learned in the classroom?

2010.3.20NA

Task 2

  2.你是否会一直表达你的真实意见,即便你知道这个意见可能不被认同。key words: honest opinion.

  2. it is always good to keep honesty?

  2,别人不同意你还坚持说实话吗

2014.8.9NA

2

Some people think that business and industry need to be developed, even if the development of them affect environment; other people think that environment need to be protected from the development of business and industry. What do you think?

 

2013.10.19NA

口语二:

Some people speak out in class, others prefer to listen and quietly observe. Which do you think leads to greater success in school? Why?

 

2011.6.25ML

2

Some students prefer to take a test where they must write an essay to a question. Other students prefer to take a test with objective questions. Which type of exam question do you prefer? Give reasons and examples in your explanation.

 

2013.5.26ML

TASK2Do you agree or disagree that teachers should encourage students to have discussions during class? Give specific reasons and details in your response.  

 

2014.7.26NA

2.technology devices distance people far more now than before.lz 本来准备的是shorten,原以为题目也是shorten,最后发现是想法的,但是都已经表达了观点。所以就即兴发挥了。希望不要太差。

2014.2.28NA

Task 2: Do you agree or disagree the following statement and give reasons: Parents should not allow their children to participate any form of sport (football, basketball, ice hockey...) in order to protect their health from any form of injury.

2014.4.5NA

S2

Finding a place to live near campus. Option 1: a house to share with several other students; Option 2: an apartment to live alone.

2014.4.12NA

口语二:

版本一:现代人的生活方式比一百年前的人的生活方式健康?

Do you agree with the statement: it is easier for people today to lead a healthy life than people of 100 years ago.            

版本二:

When traveling, do you prefer to stay at one place for a long time or spend less time but visit more places? Explain your answer in details.

 

2014.6.28NA

Task2:

Do you like to go to the city or the countryside for vacation?

2014.8.30NA

TASK2

2.Which one you think is better: Some teachers want students to sit in the same seats throughout the whole semester. Other teachers think students can choose their own seats each time and sit in different seats. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

2014.9.6NA

TASK2

2.Some schools require music and art classes, while some don’t. What is your opinion?

2014.9.27NA

2,喜欢去小商场还是大商场。

 

2014.10.17NA

Task2;

Do you agree or disagree that in the future, people will read fewer books than they do today.

 

2014.11.8NA

2. People are more likely to enjoy themselves at concerts or films if they go with a group of friends.

 

2014.11.29NA

2.

 Some people believe the government should invest money in program designed to save and protect endangered species of animal. Others believe that money for such programs should only come from private sources. Which point of view do you agree with?

2013.6.8NA

2

If you were given an empty piece of land, would you rather use it to build a garden or a playground for children?   

 

2013.6.22NA

2

你喜欢一个经常出差的工作还是总在一个地方的工作。

 

2013.12.20NA  

口语二:people who live in small town is nicer than those who live in big city, agree with disagree

2013.11.22NA   

口语二:版本一:Some students like to learn by themselves,others prefer to share their ideas with others.Which one do you prefer?

版本二:Some people like to share their thoughts through publications like newspapers and blogs,others prefer to only share them with friends.Which one do you prefer

 

2009.11.14ML/2008.3.29NA

口语二:People are never too late to receive university education to get a degree. Do you agree or disagree the above statement? Include reasons and examples to support your response.   

 

2011.2.12ML2009.10.10ML

 

Some people prefer to learn from people and events in the pasts. Others prefer to learn from current people and events. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.

 

2011.5.28NA

Do you prefer to write a long essay or give a speech in front of class for an assignment?    

 

2013.1.18NA     

2 Do you agree or disagree: people should always tell the truth?

 

依情况而定(1)有时应该(2)有时不应该

2013.1.26NA

2

一个出差多但银子多的工作,一个不需要经常出差,但是银子少的工作,你选哪一个     

2013.4.6NA

2

which do you prefer: taking the course taught by a teacher 和自学.     

2013.5.17NA

口語二:同不同意 agree or disagree: teachers should make learning fun for their students

 

2013.11.9NA     

口语二:你认为学校有没有必要强调学生学习HANDWRITING

2013.12.6NA    

口语二:Do you agree or disagree the following statement:People should be required(forced) to retire after the age of 65?

 

 

2011.10.16ML/2010.9.25NA

口语二:

Do you agree or disagree that students should be required to go to school before they are 16.

2014.6.21ML

Task 2:

Do you agree or disagree with the statement that children should do houseworks when they’re old enough.

2011.3.26ML

2

Some people prefer to read or watch news every day, other people prefer to read or watch news regularly, which do you prefer.

 

 

 

 

口语第三

2012.9.8ML/2011.3.11NA

Task 3

【学生写信】

学生写信建议学校应该在新生开学之前,给他们future roommatecontact information: email和电话。

好处1:可以让新生们早点互相认识,先交朋友。

好处2:可以plan到时候带去的东西,以免带重。【学生态度】:女生赞成。

理由1:能让学生在进学校之前就和自己的future roommate联系,这样进学校就不会太生疏,能感觉舒服点儿;

理由2:能让学生提前和自己的future roommate商量带什么东西,因为学校的宿舍很小,如果带了很多行李stuff, 就放不下了。举例说自己和室友每人带了个小冰箱,宿舍里放不开,如果先联系,就可以避免类似情况出现。

Question: Explain the woman’s opinion and why she holds that opinion.

2012.2.18NA2011.11.26ML/2009.9.11NA

s3

是讲一个学校推出了一个新的annoucementfreshman, Biology department. 说学生一起学习(group study)可以best know the equviment and improve acdemec study, and in addtion, can meet and make new friends.

However, in the conversation, the girl said the study group sort of thing doesnt help. Because people have their own way to study, expect thoes who doesnt know how to study. So she prefers to work alone.

the second point is that she thinks that if people in the same department, they will have class together, so they eventually will meet each other. So you dont really need to go to the study group.

2009.10.25ML/2007.6.24ML

口语三:学校规定大一新生first year students不能在校内用车keep their cars on campus。一个学生给校报信说学校应允许大一新生在校内用车。理由1、大一学生到校外find part-time jobs要用车,没车找工作不方便。理由2、大一学生想家get homesick的时候,周末要开车drive回很远的家探亲。没车回家不方便。

女生反对此提议。理由1、大一新生课业负担重have a lot of school work to do,没有额外时间do part-time jobs。如果开车就容易找到工作,if they do part-time jobs, they might not do well in school。理由2、如果大一新生一想家get homesickthey might go home every weekend,他们就没有足够时间与新同学相处,很难适应大学生活learn how to socialize with other people 

2013.4.27NA

3是一个学生向学校写信说允许学生在学校停车,原因是不允许学生停车,学生会不方便;学校建设新的停车场解决停车难问题。女生反对,原因:第一,学校外有bus stationtaxi station;第二,原有的空地准备建设新的实验室。

2011.12.18ML

3.一个学生提议要把campus dining hall移到Outdoor去因为可以解决crowded的问题还可以享受lawn上的好天气

男生说我against it,这只是一个temporaryproblem

-因为campus最近的另外一个dining hallrenovating所以才crowded,等几个星期过去装修好了就不会crowded

-很多人在草地上kick soccer ballPlay Frisbee. 男生幽默的说:你在草地上吃饭,说不定一个soccer ball会踢到你的沙拉里。(我听到这就笑了)

2010.1.30NA 

3

文章内容: 学校出公告要建一个housing office for off-campus.

对话: 女生同意觉得很好.原因:1)on-campusdorm已经overcrowded.

2)是新生不熟悉本地环境.这个office正好帮助他们.问总结女生观点。

2008.9.28ML/2007.8.17ML

s3

阅读:学校决定让新生在入学前提前做一些以后会做的作业, 主要是文学方面的.

  学校理由1: 学生预先掌握一下写作技巧有助于大学学习, 教授也可以不用在这些基础技能上停留太多时间, 进而传授更多知识

  学校理由2: 学生预先阅读的一些东西可以成为他们入学后的共同话题,从而促进交流, 广交朋友

听力:男生反对理由:

  1): 大部分学生在假期里面时间比较少, 比如有工作(我理解是实习),所以无法完成这些阅读任务. 而一旦完不成, 开学就要struggle to catch up, 有时不得不rush, 结果就skip文章, 囫囵吞枣

2): 新生不会谈论文学, 他们更喜欢聊熟悉有趣的话题,such as some cool places to hang out.

2012.12.8ML/2010.9.24NA

Task3:

学校准备建一个art building。女生同意,因为可以容纳更多的学生上课,她去年选课就选不上,还有更大的screen看老师show pictures and sculptures可以更清晰。

  解析:

  阅读材料:学校要建(build)一个art building

  听力材料:女生态度,同意(agree, for…)

  理由一:可以容纳(accommodate)更多学生,女生举例去年就因为空间小选课没有选上。

  理由二:可以有更大的screen,这样看老师show pictures and sculptures可以更清晰(clearer)

按照以上主线将听力材料组织完全即可。

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口语三,阅读里面说学生建议取消读诗会,因为很少有人参加,而且可以从图书馆借CD来听。听力里女生不同意,因为现在读诗会只会在网站上发通知,如果他们能在教室、图书馆和学生中心还有报纸这些其他形式上也加以通知,肯定会有更多人来。而且参加读诗会和听CD感觉不同,可以make eye contact,use body language,和其他人分享这种经历。 

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

 

3

school need the students who study politician science to read the newspaper and new newpaper room will set in the library.

  the man like the idea, he think read the newapaper can give him a chance to know a lot of thing about the topic of research paper, 可以有效的帮助学生去理解一些大事情,

还有,news room good 因为同学能更好的学习,多门天真的孩子啊

2008.5.10ML

口语三:学校报纸出来一则新的policy ,要求学生把belongings搬到一个什么store space的地方.每个人分3个箱子.然后是男女生见面讨论.

那个女生说1)她这不公平,可以开车把东西弄回家去,但是她的roommate就难办了. 2)没有必要worry地盘不够用,好象是说的dorm可以放吧

2014.9.27NA

Task3:

reading: university theter is planning to prohibit eating food in the stadium reason1: eating is a distraction to other members in the show, and avoid eating increase the experience  reason 2: students do not bring the waste out of the stadium- forget to dispose. listening: the woman agree with th notice  reason1: noise. someone eats popcorn and distracts her. reason2: dirty. someone leaves the popcorn box in the stadium.

2011.3.19NA/2012.12.2ML /2013.3.19NA

Task3:

【学校通知】:announcement学校计划要搞library expansion:把图书馆旁边的student center改造成new library,从而increase library space。好处1、有更多的空间摆放更多书shelves、存放更多媒体materials。好处2、摆放更多桌椅,让学生有更多地方自习。

【学生态度】:男生反对。理由1、学校应该用technology手段而非扩建图书馆以节省space,比如将资料扫描成electronic copy储存到电脑里可以节省空间。理由2、同学们爱去student center自习,不爱去图书馆。学校减小学生中心只能导致学生自习空间更少。

版本二

听力材料讲,男学生不同意,1说学生可以在student center学习即使扩建还是满屋子书架,学习空间大不了哪去。

第三题:阅读说学校图书馆要给更多的space吧。然后听力反对,说更多space不好,2点理由,第一说图书馆可以用电子化书籍,用电脑,电脑比shelf占的地方小多了。第二貌似是说有个student center还是哪里,中间有个xx,有很大的space,可以在那里放些桌子,这样同学们可以到那里去学习,这样图书馆就有更多地方放shelf

2013.12.14NA

口语三:给大学新生建议周末去野营,并且学校提供道具和方案,女的不同意,理由1第一年应该在学校校园环境理由2装备很贵,一年只用一次,性价比不高。

2011.3.26ML

【学生困难】:

很多人想报short story course,因此要交一篇short story,教授觉得合适的人录取,但女生擅长的是写poem

【解决方案】:

第一个方案:按要求写short story,但是女生从没读过,也没时间(要考试),要写也只能草草写;

第二个方案:该女生擅长写诗,交一篇以前写的诗歌,但怕老师直接拒绝了。

【问题】:

Briefly summarize the problem and two possible solutions. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why.    

2014.11.29ML

3. Library to offer reference materials online only

Reading: The library decides no longer keep paper copies because run out of space on shelves.

Conversation: 男表示都在线查资料太棒了。因为男在图书馆工作,深有体会。书记资料太多,整理很麻烦,学生检索起来也不是很方便。女表示没有意识到会有这么大的问题。男的反问女的你上次什么时候去的图书馆查资料还记得吗,表明去图书馆查阅纸质资料的人其实也不是很多。女的同意,表示反正宿舍也有电脑,查阅起来也很方便。

QUESTION: Please express his opinion, state his opinion and explain his reason for holding his ideas.

2012.12.1NA 

3

阅读材料是学校通知下学期将开设interview skill workshop,会请外面的职业人士来学校模拟interview,帮学生更好的准备以后找工作。

对话里两个人都很喜欢这个program,因为1,附近的其他学校都没有开设这个program,所以他们会变得competitive2,除了能教你skillmeeting and chatting with这些不同行业的人能够build up connections

2011.10.14NA

3

阅读:一个校报letter说一个学生提意见说图书馆家具沙发太烂要求换新的,理由是大家经常去图书馆学习希望more relaxing 更舒适

听:女生反对,说太relaxing反而不利于学习,因为太舒服了很容易就没心思学习了,光休息了。她建议说换家具不如多装一些电门,因为学生都是带laptop去的,经常不够用。这个更necessary

2013.12.28ML

口语三,学校调整住宿政策,大一只和大一住,因为大一新生之间要多了解交流,并且学校提供不混住的宿舍会吸引到更多学生。对话中女生觉得这样很没必要,因为:1新生已经有很多机会相互了解了,比如活动什么的,而且他们很多课都一起上;2很多学生喜欢混住的宿舍,包括包括她就是被这种mixed type吸引的,因为前辈可以给他们经验和建议。

2010.3.20NA

3

阅读:a letter about humanistic study lounge

听力:男的说真不错,这样就不用浪费时间了,不用跑多个地方去上课了,来去各10分钟,课间30分钟,如果有了这个,就可以在一个地方不用跑了。另外,有的课很难,有助于学生们交流提供一个场所,比如Hamlet很难,找不到同学讨论,如果有lounge 就不一样了,可以在一起讨论解决。

2009.11.14ML/2008.3.29NA

口语三:学校计划不再免费提供打印材料,并限定每个学生每个月只能打印100张。理由1、浪费纸张太多。理由2、打印机经常卡纸。

女生不同意:一,研究论文过程中打印的纸张不能算作浪费;打印机卡纸是因为机器本身太旧。

2014.7.26NA

3.university should sponsor organized a bus trips for 1st years tudents. 1. 1st year students don't have a car, 2. senors can be more familiar with the city.

  The woman thinks it is a good idea. First, the city is far from campus, and no public transportation available. Second, because there is no bus, she did not know the time and place for music concerts.

2014.2.28NA

S3

阅读里说学校决定取消夏天的早餐服务,因为吃饭的学生不多,而且想吃的人也可以到附近的咖啡厅吃早餐。听力里女生不同意,因为很多学生夏天也会在校上课,需要早餐提供体力,另外去其他咖啡厅吃早餐价格太贵。

2014.4.5NA

S3

Reading: Proposal of selling snack and drinks in the campus bookstore.

  Reasons: 1. It provides students with food and drinks when they are finding books to read. 2. Students may get hungry during class breaks.

Listening: Disapproval 1. Students may spill drinks on books and ruin them. Some books are expensive. 2. There is already a convenience store in campus close to the building where classes are held. Students are unlikely to go to the other side of the campus to buy food from the book store.

2014.4.12NA

口语三:

版本一:文中说下学期开始,学生将不被允许在学生活动中心外面的墙上张贴海报,因为海报使建筑难看,海报可以贴在餐厅的海报栏里。女生不认同,她说如果不给贴,那个建筑就会变的很boring,就是光秃秃的水泥墙,海报使建筑看上去有艺术感,使它具有性格和个性,海报常常变化,也使得建筑不那么沉闷。关于海报贴在餐厅外,女孩说不是所有人都在餐厅吃饭,课后有的人吃点零食,有的在外面吃从家带来的饭,这样的话,他们就看不到贴在餐厅外的海报,可能会错过很多

版本二:

Proposal

The university prohibit students riding bicycles on campus next semester. 

Reasons 

1. There are some minor accidents. The university will reduce the accidents caused by riding bicycles. 

2. Students can take free campus buses. So it will not affect students much. Listening 

The girl disagrees. Reasons 

1. The accidents took place at night because of low visibility.  

2. Free buses are not convenient. Buses are only available once an hour and waiting for 

buses is a waste of time. 

2014.6.28NA

Task3:

图书馆furniture旧了,换新的,原因一:舒服二:吸引更多人来图书馆。

女生不同意:沙发软容易困,不集中精力;现在人少是因为很多人用电脑,但是电源插头不够。

2014.8.30NA

TASK3

3.Letter: 学校应该让大家在注册了课程之后立马能够拿到课程的书单,这样能够有两个好处。第一,给学生足够的时间去找到价格低廉的教科书。第二,给学生足够的时间开始为这门课做准备。

 To make the book list available to students immediately after the registration

1)Give students time to search for low price textbooks

2)Let them have time start preparing for the course

 Conversation: 男生完全同意信的内容

1)学校书店新书太贵,二手书很便宜,但是数量少,而且卖的非常快。这样之后可以有足够的时间去不同地方找便宜的二手书

2)开学了之后会很忙碌,有很多的reading要做。而开学之前就比较闲,有很多的空闲时间,可以利用起来阅读。

2014.9.6NA

TASK3

3.图书馆规定加一个人proposal: against the libraries’ regulation that students shouldn’t use cell phones in the library and students should turn off their cell phone before entering. Two reasons: students are considerate enough to keep their voices low when answering calls just like they do when talking to other people in the library; they occasionally have important calls, so they need to keep the cell phone turned on in order not to miss them.

一个男生和女生讨论,女生的观点是这个proposal很挫,因为:1. If students answer calls, they have to whisper, but the other side听不清楚,so they have to raise their voices up, thus distracting other students; 2. 如果他们有重要的电话,可以check outside the library from time to time. (再次重复一遍这个意思)

2014.9.27NA

3,校园里建museum. 男生不同意。一是downtown有周末还免费二是都建图书馆和学生中心,没钱建博物馆。 

2014. 2014.10.17NA

Task3;

一个女生和一个男生对话,女生说a few students’ art works were chosen 在一个art exhibit上展出;男生sounds great, so you are one of them;女生说是的,但是问题来了,她的那幅画太大,is a 3-meter canvas,会超出展览方给的limited exhibiting space.男生说真的吗?女生说,对的,他们不愿意给我更大的space, because that will be unfair for other students. 接着说,但我可以把我的一副older painting拿去展出(one suggestion),which is smaller.男生说可以啊;女生说,但是那幅画是我以前画的,而我的technique has improved a lot since then,所以那幅画不能体现我的真实水平;男生说,那要不你draw a new one by the next week(第二个suggestion);女生说其实也可以,但是我最近很busy,a couple of exams coming.

2014.11.8NA

3

A letter from a student to campus newspaper: Graduation speakers should be business leaders: 1. business leaders are excellent role models. They are successful and influential, earn high wages; 2. Inviting business leaders to speak will be beneficial to the school’s largest and best business program.因此更多人会知道。By Ryan Brown

Listening: 男生说你看到ryan给学校写的那封信了吗?女孩说看到了,我觉得其实这样不好,因为people from other professions can also be successful and influential;男生说意思是要增加variety吗?女生说对,比如可以邀请teachers,很多teacher也会对学生产生深远的影响;男生问,那他说的可以benefit我们学校的business program这一点呢?女生说:其实这个business program is successful and famous enough, so it doesn’t deserve extra free advertising. 相反,如果邀请教师,会对我们学校的education program产生良好影响

2014.11.29NA

3. Library to offer reference materials online only

Reading: The library decides no longer keep paper copies because run out of space on shelves.

Conversation: 男表示都在线查资料太棒了。因为男在图书馆工作,深有体会。书记资料太多,整理很麻烦,学生检索起来也不是很方便。女表示没有意识到会有这么大的问题。男的反问女的你上次什么时候去的图书馆查资料还记得吗,表明去图书馆查阅纸质资料的人其实也不是很多。女的同意,表示反正宿舍也有电脑,查阅起来也很方便。

QUESTION: Please express his opinion, state his opinion and explain his reason for holding his ideas.

2014.12.19NA

3. Reading part: Nowadays university news station hire students from different majors to write articles for the newspaper, while in the future, the news station should only hire journalism students to write. In this way, they can keep students who are really interested in news, and can have more articles completed.

Listening part: Disagree

1) Students in other major may also be interested in writing news piece, so the university should also encourage those students to write for newspaper. Take him for example, he’s now majored in history but he wants to enter news industry in the future.

2) Extra articles don’t help. There’s no point to have too much articles coming in, because the station may not have the resource and time to deal with so many articles. The process of preparing an article is complicated, which includes the efforts of both the editors and writers. The writers write first and hand in to editors for reviewing, and then back to the writers to edit, and then back to the editors for final editing.

2013.6.8NA

3

Reading:

  学生写信,学校咖啡厅提供beverages and cookies很好,但建议增加两项:

  一些如sandwiches这样难吃的食物

  more light music

  Listening:

  The woman agrees with the proposal,具体两点进行支持:

  the cookies don't really help much when she's hungry,所以的确要有一些其他吃的

the music there is too noisy now, she has to go back to her dorm to read instead of reading there

2013.11.22NA   

口语三:

Reading:Proposal:The lounge in the dorm should be changed into study room.              Reason 1:People can go there to study.                    

Reason 2:The study room should be eqipped with computers.                  Listening:The man agrees.            

Reason 1:It's too noisy in the lounge because people watch TV there,and the dorm rooms can be noisy too because the roommate is always on the phone or listening to music,and they have nowhere to study.              

Reason 2: Computers make it so much more conveninent to study,because not everyone has a computer, sometimes they have to go to the library to use the computers there and the library is closed when it's too late.    

2013.12.20NA  

口语三:学校报纸上有个建议将在校生和alumni联系,讨论careeractivities,女学生对话里说,她认为学生现在很忙,没有时间拜访,而且学生已经有学校家长给他们建议了,太多的建议只会更加confusing

2011.6.25ML

3

newspaper上有人写信说建议在宿舍增加厨房和冰箱等设备,让学生在宿舍做饭。男生同意,说GREAT IDEA,然后说可以食堂可供选择的总是不想吃的,还可以几个人一个组做饭,learn from each other之类的. 那个男生最后还说了一点paragraph以外的理由,即after graduation students will need to live alone and cook their own food anyway. 因此在学校就开厨房做饭可以learn some practical life skills     

2011.2.12ML2009.10.10ML

阅读:教授要求学生在上讨论课程前发email给她。

The email from a professor says that require students submit her two questions about the reading material one day ahead on class discussion.

听力:男学生认为很好,1)说可以节省时间,并举例上上次讨论花费太长时间。 2)预习课程不仅有利于讨论,并对课程结束时的paper有很有好处,提供很多好idea topic.

There are two beneficial. First, it can to promote students finish reading assignment better. Second, it can add class discussion to aim at students’ interests. The man agrees with the professor’s requirement about the discussion for two reasons. Firstly, he thinks it is good for the discussion part because it would save time. Last time, it took him a long time to finish discussion. Second, it is useful for their finals. Because students have interesting ideas ready and they are easy to write paper.

QuestionExplain the man’s opinion and why she holds that opinion.

2011.5.28NA

版本一:【主题】A letter to a university, Witten by a girl .Seats are planning to

be built outside (on the lawn).

1观点】男反对:

2理由】【1.Another dining room is closed .l t will be better if that dining room is open , and students can  use both.

2. Some people will play soccer on the lawn ,and they will hit some people.                               版本二:【主题】在食堂附近的草地上设些桌椅

【理由】【1.食堂太挤,【2.可以享受好天气

1观点】男的不认为这是个好主意。

2理由】【1.还有食堂其它的halls可以用,只要学生们不要只集中在一个hall里用餐就可以解决这个拥挤的问题了。【2.好像是室外草地可以用于运用

2013.1.18NA     

3 Reading:大学准备关闭学生的art gallery

Listening: 男生反对该决议:1. 该大学艺术系学生多,作品来源不成问题。2. 学校的宣传做得不好,经常是展览结束后了,才有介绍文章出来,大家都不知道有展览。

附录原文:

W: Did you read the school newspaper? The art galley will be closed in a few days.

M: Hum, I knew the decision. You know what? I am going to write an e-mail to Dean to complain about this plan.

W: So, what are you complaining about? It looks they have done nothing wrong about it. You know, not too many art majors take the advantage of the gallery and display their works there.

M: Ah, that is true, obviously. But...but they see only part of the truth.

W: What do you mean?'

M: Well, let me put it this way. The reason that many majors don't display their works in the gallery is that they take the chance of exhibiting in the gallery very seriously. So they always wait until everything is perfect before sending their works to the exhibition.

W: Aha, I didn't know it before. But how would you explain that only very few students come to the gallery even during the period of exhibition?

2013.1.26NA

3

学生写信限制诗歌课的人员数量,控制在15左右,以让学生能够更多get feedback from professor, 控制的方式可通过选TOP15的学生,被选出的学生一般都是对课程serious     

2013.4.6NA

3

announcement: Ice-skating rink will be converted into student house holding.理由: 1, not enough space to hold all the students in campus 所以要改建滑冰场给新生做宿舍2, 那座building is convenience, near town.

conversation: the man disagrees with the change.

理由: 1, 很多学生都喜欢去那里滑冰,是一个有趣的场所,企鹅附近没有那样的场地了。

2, 学生住的地方应该里教室图书馆等地近才好,如果有学生住到改建的那里要来回折腾,浪费时间。

2013.5.17NA

口語三::学校组织meeting邀请教职员工和学生参加以了解学校发展,在主会场和俩分会场举行;分会场人不能提问。女生反对,认为可以把报告放到学校网站,一来所有人都能了解全部内容,如果meeting的话不是所有人都能参加;二来可以发邮件提问演讲者解答疑惑,meeting的话分会场人不能提问   

2013.11.9NA     

口语三:【学生倡议】:有一个学生在校报上发表了一个 proposal, 建议学校设立student committee审查给每个社团的预算,因为:1. 学生更了解学生组织;2. 能够锻炼学生的领导力。

【学生态度】:男生反对:

1. not objective and not fair, 学生会给朋友或自己的社团更多钱;

2.  大多数学生没兴趣,而且都很 busy,没人愿意 volunteer 他们的时间在这个committee 上。

2013.12.6NA    

口语三:reading: proposal:the student suggests to cancel the school news annoucement.

reason1: Not helpful ,because it is provided at the very beginning of the semester,most students would forget the news later.

reason2: Not necessary,because the news have already been posted on websites.

listnensing:the woman disagrees

reason1: It is useful sometimes.For example,she bought cheap books in the book fair because she saw the news,it helped her save a lot of money.

reason2: It is not realistic to hope that students would check websites often.They have other things to do,for instance classes and on-campus events.

2014.1.25NA

3

阅读:campus gym要关闭一个月改善更衣室和淋浴间。在这期间市中心的gym对学生免费开放。学校认为这很convenient

听力:女生觉得没必要整个gym都关闭,可以到寝室换衣服洗澡。觉得也不convenient因为走去市中心要半个小时,锻炼完走回来会很累

2014.6.21ML

TASK3 

R: There is a proposal that the theater assistants should be paid and trained.

  L: The man holds a positive attitude towards it.

  1) Firstly, he says that most assistants have their main job. For example, one of his friends gave up the rehearsal because it conflicts with his boss's job.

2) Furthermore, he says the training will help the assistants work better. Some professional staffs teach the assistant how to use the equipments will also improve the quality of the play

2011.10.16ML/2010.9.25NA

口语三:

阅读:学校打算在寝室加装电脑with Internet。有人在等的时候,每个人限用10分钟。

听力:一个女生赞同。因为:一,这样她有时候忘记查邮件或者要出去但是忘记路线了,查起来就方便了,不用go all the way down back to her room。因为她住四楼。二,有些人总是坐在电脑面前发信息,而有些同学是急着用电脑写paper的。

口语第四

2013.10.25NA  

口语四:trial offer。几个月前我看见电视上的一个广告(commercial)在推销stretching machine,在广告里都是一些很健美的男人,有很漂亮的肌肉,并且告诉你使用效果很棒,我看了很动心,但是那个广告只提供了一个购买电话在屏幕上,我对此犹豫不决,因为我不知道这个我没有听说过(unheard of),不熟悉(unfamiliar)的机器究竟是好是坏, 它是不是真的像广告中的那样起作用,因此我没有买。

 

几天后我在另外一个频道中看见了关于这个健身器材的同样的广告,这次不仅有购买电话号码,并且提供一个月的免费试用期,可以先使用后付款,于是我就订购了一台,试用期满后我付款买下了这台健身器。

2011.10.14NA

4

阅读:讲小孩遇到做事失败后经常frastrate,稍微大点的孩子就会知道如何克服这种不好的情绪,讲家长要怎么怎么帮助孩子去增强抗失落

听:举例说自己的孩子玩积木吧盖塔,经常倒。倒了就叫家长帮忙,他每次都去帮忙。但后来发现这样不好,所以他每次都故意晚去一会,几周之后孩子学会了独立完成。

 

2010.3.20NA

4

问题:男人说要写一个作业关于poem的,他发现一本好书在图书馆,但他出去玩疯了,忘了在Weds(大概是)借书了,而且他点背,那天图书馆关门早。

 

解决方案

1女的说可不可以用别的poem书呢,他就觉得这书好。

2另外一个就是,明天早晨早点儿去图书馆,然后快点儿看,因为没啥时间了,必须的他交作业了

 

2009.11.14ML/2008.3.29NA

口语四:advanced crediting 这一概念:老师在学生没有完成某任务之前就鼓励学生们说他们会做这个可以帮助学生最后完成这个任务。

听力材料里professor讲述了advanced crediting的一个例子,总是鼓励一开始乱仍糖纸的小孩子是讲卫生,爱干净的孩子,他们到最后就会变得不乱丢糖纸了。

 

2013.5.26ML

Task 4

  Term: Impact Bias

  Definition: people have inaccurate expectations of the impact certain event will have on them. Both the intensity and how long it would last

  Lecture:

The professors daughter wanted to apply to this University because her best friends are applying and the University’s got a great educational program. She thought he life will be ruined if she didn’t get it. It turns out she wasn’t accepted. She got very upset about it. But she was busy taking care of her high school graduation and planning her summer vacation. Pretty soon she forgot about her misfortune of being rejected by the school, and move on with her life.

 

2014.7.26NA

4. commitment device

  the professor wanted to run a 10 kilometer race,and planned to get up very early in the morning. But he often went back to sleep after getting up. Then he has a friend who ran with him together so that he was able to run every early in the morning.

2014.2.28NA

S4阅读讲Nomadic phase指动物的迁徙,主要因为一些生活危机,例如食物枯竭或其他灾难。听力举例蚁群居住在地下,但当新蚁出生后他们就会迁徙,以满足对新生蚂蚁的食物源头。

 

2012.2.18NA2011.11.26ML/2009.9.11NA

S4

讲的是货币的形式, 说的是1, 货币是coin and paper bonds. 例子是如果你坐出租车, 你付给driver的是钱.

还有一种方式是以物易物, 说一个农夫坐出租车, 他可以给司机他的农产品, 如果司机同意了, 那这个时候农产品就是钱.

但是, 政府规定了我们现在使用第一种方式.

 

2012.12.8ML/2010.9.24NA

Task4:

promotion risk. 听力举的例子是一个software designer因为工作很好,就升职做了supervisor of xxx department,但是这个人很擅长设计软件,但是不擅长管理,不能在deadline之前完成工作,不能motivate其他员工,但是又不能给他降职,会让他很没面子,因而公司要承担给他升职的风险。

  解析:

  阅读材料:中心词是promotion risk,记录下该术语的definition或者explanation

  听力材料:教授举例。

答题:按照阅读笔记复述术语概念,按照听力笔记将该例子复述即可。注意promotion risk与例子之间的联系。

 

 

2013.4.27NA

4是讲一个概念,忘记了这个概念是什么,但是意思是老师对一个学生的印象往往来自于别的老师的评价和别的学生的印象,但是这样的印象往往是不准确的。音频提供的例子是教授交六年级学生的时候有一个同学特别安静。教授布置了一个任务,以为这个学生太安静了而不能完成。。但是最后是这个学生做的最好。

 

2011.12.18ML

4.distraction display动物们会把predator吸引走,来保护自己的幼仔。for example, 什么Mourning dove(读音是这样)Mourning doves build their nests on the ground, so they are more exposed and vulnerable to large predators. 像狐狸。如果adult dove看到狐狸就会立马做出反应,它会飞开自己的巢,装作自己的wingbroken的,让狐狸以为自己是一个easy victim.其实不是。adult dove把狐狸吸引到很远的地方后,自己再突然逃脱,它Nest里的Young dove就安全了(貌似这个distraction displayTPO的听力里出现过。)

 

2009.9.19NA

口语四:

一个说学校要建个图书馆但是会覆盖了原有用来hang out 的地方

一个女生是一个组织的代表想申请一个event 去表示他们组织的反对

*问到为什么Dean 要问她组织里有多少人

因为要确定他们是否有足够影响力

*问杂志上什么写错了:其实这件事还没定下来

*那个女的应该做research 然后去参加会议直接跟领导人讲

 

2008.9.28ML/2007.8.17ML

S4

阅读:文章介绍一种艺术作品, 并且给出了定义, 然后介绍了2种类型

听力:讲座介绍分别举例子介绍这两种类型:第一种好像介绍了一个浴缸, 艺术家在其外面 cover rubber, make it yellow, 参观者觉得很漂亮, 没有想到这种平常的东西会如此soft, smooth;第二种好像说的是撑衣架, factory manufactured, 没有经过任何modification, just stay as it usually looks like. 同样让人们惊叹好看

 

2010.1.30NA 

4

business classlateral view(侧面观点).就是从一个新的观点来看问题.

对话里的教授举了一个例子:一个经营宾馆的人老遭到顾客抱怨说等电梯时间太长.然后经理先去找了电梯生产商,发现解决问题成本太高.然后他的员工给他提意见说可以在电梯前装个电视,顾客就不觉得无聊了.问题让你用这个例子来说明lateral view.

 

 

2008.5.10ML

口语四:短文说:商业上经常采用分类的方式来标记商品,商品按照大众认识的分类,就可以被找到.在商品的分类上创新,可以增加用户对商品的注意,增加销售量..

lecture:以手表为例,人们以前把它认为是一种昂贵而严肃的珠宝产品,做工精细,用于看时间,可以保存很长时间。但一个公司创造性地把它定位在流行时尚和有趣的产品上,它由塑料制造而不再是金属,也不贵了。

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

4

joint verture   一个公司和一个公司合作创立第三个公司,平分利润。

听力老师用个一个tv 公司想要build一个网站post the news 但是他们没有高人帮他们弄网站,就找了一帮高人有着很强电脑技能,to design and maintain the website. they will provide the news. the profit made by third company is adversitment in the website, they 平分利润。

2013.12.14NA

口语四:permeable group的概念,意即相比于一些封闭的动物种群,有一些动物种群的group愿意接纳外界的个体加入group一起生活,相互交流一些经验。Lecture中,professor举了female chimpanzee的例子,chimpanzee到了十岁的时候就会离开家庭,独自寻找一个group生活。而新的group也很乐意接纳她,因为她会带来一些新的知识。比如说在捕食上,由于她从另一个地方来,她在捕食ant的时候采取一种借助stick的方式,即让ant都从stick的一端爬上,然后她再在另一端等着吃掉它们。这个group里的其他成员会看着她完成这一切,记录下来并应用到以后的生活中。

 

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口语四,阅读讲Test Marketing用来测试潜在客户对一个产品的反应,帮助公司对产品的问题进行修改,听力里举了电影公司的例子。比如他们做一个动画片给小孩看,但他们没有经验,所以就找来一些小孩看这部片子并且问他们最喜欢的角色,小孩都说喜欢里面的狗,于是公司以此为判断,把狗作为了动画片的主角,然后大获成功。      

 

 

2011.3.19NA/2012.12.2ML /2013.3.19NA

Task4:

【名词解释】:friend affiliation(群体归属)refers to the people’s desire to be a member of a certain group。广告商make advisement by using people’s affiliation有两种方法:一是利用其positive effect,通过宣扬广告产品可以增加affiliation,在朋友之间寻求認同。二是利用其negative方法,如果用别的brand产品就会失去affiliation

【教授举例】:为一个软饮料公司策划一个ad campaign,可有两种方案:第一种方案:在一个happy party里,everybodydrink the same kind ofbrandsoda,都很happyThe soda becomes a very important thing in this situation。第二种方案:some young people are watching a football game in a stadium,突然 one of them drink a wrong brand of sodathen all the people become quite and 用奇怪的眼神look at himand leave him aloneeven his best friend left himThen he realized he made a big mistake to drink the wrong kind soda。这是从negative入手让观众喜欢这个牌子的soda。问教授是怎么说明reading passage中的观点的。

2014.9.13NA

4

biological monitor(这个我当时有点蒙圈,说到一半才突然弄明白了TAT)

用来check health of environment

听力是一个机场每天有飞机,用蜜蜂的蜂蜜产量来判断环境好不好,结果发现蜂蜜产量没有变化,所以环境是好的

 

2013.9.28NA

Task4:

阅读话题是biological mimicry,即科学家通过观察动植物的生活习惯和生活方式获得灵感,把其中的一些值得借鉴的方式应用到人类生活中。听力里professor谈论的是一种叫lily pad的宽大扁平的植物(睡莲叶),一般漂浮在水面上,根茎在水中,科学家们由此发明了solar lily pads,一种太阳能装置,扁平的太阳能panel漂浮在水中,而发电装置放置在水中,可以大面积吸收太阳能然后快速转换成电能,为人类生产生活服务。

2011.3.26ML

【讲课要点】:

 

古人要使火不灭,需要学习两方面的知识。1technological skill:燃烧的木头可能是因为闪电引起的。一开始人不知道,后来他们发现木头其实是一种fuel,如果往火里不停加木头,火就能一直烧下去。2social skill:大家如果都睡觉的话,火就会灭掉,学会轮班加木头,火就能一直烧下去。

 

The lecture is about early human how to keep fire burning. Two ways one is find the fuel first such as tree woods. Second is social work such as cooperation, because they have to take turns to look after the fire to keep it burning all the time

 

2012.12.1NA 

4

阅读:一business class介绍了fast following这个conceptwhich means一些公司不愿意be the first to try new products,于是如果别的公司推出了innovativenew product,他们会快速效仿。
听力:例子是一video game company颠覆传统,用感应人的动作的movement sensor代替controller(不就是wii吗。。。。。。),市场反应很好。于是另外一家公司马上效仿这个做法,而且还improve了他们的graphic quality,所以市场上人们都灰常like it and buy it

 

 

2014.4.5NA

S4

Reading: Compound Nesting (biology) two species live together, which are different enough not to compete for food.

Listening: example of Ants in Africa. The bigger ant collects food, and the smaller one eats the left over scrambles. For the smaller one, it doesn't need to search for food. For the bigger one, the smaller one makes the nest clean by eating the left over food, which prevents bacteria.

2014.4.12NA

口语四:

版本一:说的是animal coloration,说是动物会具有一种独特的颜色,这种颜色会警告它的捕食者,如果被侵犯,它就会攻击,吃过苦头的攻击者下次见到这种颜色的动物就会避而远之。教授说了一个例子,skunk臭鼬是一种全身黑的动物,只有一缕白毛从头部延伸到尾巴,它被攻击时会竖起毛,尾巴上的腺体喷出十分难闻的气体。比如说一只狼接近它,它就会把这种难闻的液体喷狼一身,由于这种液体十分的恶心难闻,狼就记住了这种动物的颜色特征,下次这只狼再看到全身黑,背上有从头到尾巴的白毛的动物就会远远的避开。

 

版本二:

Test costumers, are people who are hired by employers to evaluate the employees’

 performance during work. They pretend to be normal customers.                           Examples 

A restaurant manager wanted to observe how well the waitress and waiter did. She watched in person, but it was successful, because people who were observed behaved better than usual. So, she hired a man who pretended to be a normal customer in the restaurant, and ask employees questions, then the man gave the manager a feedback about employees behavior, for example, whether she is friendly and polite.

2014.6.28NA

Task4:

教授给儿子买积木儿子第一次玩stack a tower积木fell down he call his father for help.儿子play the blocks everyday and everytime his blocks fall down he'll call his father.the professor 故意stay longer day by day than before...儿子在等他爸的时间里学会自己搭积

2014.8.30NA

TASK4

4.讲的是procedural memory

文章:procedural记忆和普通的记忆不一样(比如记住名字啥的),它是一种时间中根据步骤step by step而记下来的。是能够自动automatically执行的记忆(act automatically if frequently practiced)。

讲座:男教授用自己学和弹吉他的经验来说明这个procedural memory

他开始学吉他的时候,从如何hold住琴,如何place fingers开始到练习弹奏歌曲。每次回去之后都会练习很久,一段时间之后,他可以拿起琴就知道如何放手指,轻松的弹奏歌曲。但是有段时间有事儿,没有空练习(貌似是好几年)。当他再有机会拿起琴的时候,他以为自己忘了如何弹奏。可是当他拿起琴之后,他就知道怎样放手指,并且弹奏歌曲了。

 

2014.9.6NA

TASK4

4.Reading: convergent revolution-two different locations but pose similar challenges, thus unrelated species develop similar physical features.

Lecture: aardvark in Africa and echidna in Australia. They eat the same insects as their main food. The insects’ nest are of hard crust, so predator很难吃到这种昆虫,因此these two animals have the same long, sticky tongue in order to capture the insects.在昆虫的巢穴上凿洞,把舌头伸进去吃……

2014.9.27NA

4,广告对环境的负面影响。

2014.10.17NA

Task4;

Reading:

Professor evaluation

这个student写了个letter给校方希望能改变professor evaluationwhich is carried out at the end of every class,的方式。之前的evaluate之后都是教授自己看,不具有公开性;所以学生propose to put the evaluations online. 有两个好处:1. Professors will get more motivated to improve his teaching skills if he knows that the evaluations will go public. 2. 学生也可以通过这些评估做出more informed decision as to which course to take.

Listening:

男生女生对话,男生说,哎挺好的啊。女生说,我觉得一点都不好。教授肯定feel not happy about his course being publicly criticized,他不会take it seriously 而这些evaluation也不会influence他的Teaching skill。男生说,但至少学生们表达的自己的观点啊。女生说:这就是问题所在。The evaluations are usually the end of the last class举行,很多学生都in a hurry to leave,所以不会take the evaluation seriously ,也不会提一些specific的建议。

2014.11.8NA

4. 女孩说summer is coming,你都准备好了干什么啊?男生说准备去professorlab里面做一个chemistry research internship,女生说seems that you are all set。男生说其实没有,还有很多问题。我的这个internship is unpaid, but I need to earn money.女生说我听说campus book store在招人,你可以work in the lab during weekdays and go to the book store at weekends.男生说then I cannot relax much.女生说倒也是,或者你可以ask your professor to see whether you can share then internship with others.你就可以在没有工作的那几天出去赚钱。男生说,对的,我听说以前也出现过几个人share这个position的情况,the professor was fine with it. 女生赞同,男生说但是那样我就不能learn as much as I can if I do it for full-time. I cannot follow up with the experiments and results.      

2014.11.29NA

4.vertical migration

Reading: we usually associate migration with birds. But other species do migration too. 目的:warm climate and more favorable condition for reproduction.

Lecture: squid. 每天晚上它会在水的表面找东西和活动,会一直到天明。但是白天的时候会回到水的下面,因为上层不安全,阳光容易使得squid很容易捕猎者发现,所以它需要刀深水来躲避。

QUESTION: Use details from the reading and lectures to explain vertical migration and how it benefits the squid.

 

2014.12.19NA

4. Reading part: Nectar Corridor

Nectar corridor is a distinctive type of migratory corridor comprised of a series of stepping stones placed in a dissimilar matrix. Some of the migratory species time their migration to match the flowering and fruiting of various food plants. The flowing plants serve as nectar trials to fuel their flights. In the process of moving from one plant to another, these species are not only feeding, they are also pollinating.

Listening part: A species called Rufous Hummingbird follows the nectar corridor. They migrate each fall to southern Mexico, feeding off flowering plants on their way. In the spring they again follow the nectar trail as they return to Northern California, Washington and the Rocky Mountains and well into southern Alaska. This small bird plays an important role in plant reproduction by moving pollen from plant to plant on its winter grounds, breeding grounds, and any area over which it migrates. From Alaska to Mexico and throughout the western US, the Rufous Hummingbird drinks nectar and pollinates flowers year-round   throughout the habitat that it visits annually.

How does the example in the listening part explain the concept of priority effects?

2013.6.8NA

4

Reading:

  动物之间cooperation,协同作战抵御捕食者

  Listening:

动物迁徙时,如果一只停下来喝水,其他也会一起停下喝水,再继续一起迁徙,因为there might be predators like lions on the dry open grass, 单独行动很危险。

 

 

2013.11.22NA   

口语四:Definition:Latent demand means that potential customers needs can be identified by the companies thus better meet the needs of the customers.             

Examples:People used large steros to listen to music at the beginning,later smaller steros appeared and people started bringing them to ourdoors to listen to music.Some companies sensed this latent demand,and they figured that isn't it great if people could listen to music in public but privately instead of playing it out loud?So they made tiny steros with ear buds,and it was a huge success and there was no competition back then.

 

2013.12.20NA  

口语四:virtue by association因为某人的背景或是和组织的关系而判定这个人, lectureprofessor举了个他投票给一个市长候选人的时候,仅仅因为他的家庭在当地名声很好,结果这个被选出来的市长并不行

2011.6.25ML

4

阅读:讲AD efficient strategy——modeling(这是题目)当产品complicated to use时这个会说得很明白而且有演示什么的。

lecture:作者自己experience:儿子要ice-cream机,pro说那玩意太复杂买回来也不会整啊,结果偶然看到modelingAD还有演示(step by step),说这个简单又快捷,于是乎就买了,最后教授承认真的很好用。

 

 

 

 

 

2011.5.28NA

版本一:【讲座主题】Reading: ln the world of animals ,一些动物confronting and fighting

Against predators.

【相关例子】Lecture: A kind of dove always likes to build the nest on the ground .

Lts easy to hurt .When the fox comes ,one dove always pretends to be

hurt, and  cannot fly(luring ).So the small dove will survive.     

 

版本二:文章distraction display

讲座:教授举了一个例子某种鸟把窝建得高,很多动物就够不着了,但有一种什么狐狸还可以够得着,会伤它们的鸟宝宝和打破它们的蛋,所以成年鸟就会转移这些狐狸的注意力,把它们引到远离它们的窝的地方,当它们达到目的后也逃走从而保护了它们的孩子。这种行为就是文章里说的distraction display

 

2013.1.18NA     

4 Reading: 心理学一概念:讲你希望对方成为什么样的人,你就应该按照你希望他()成为的那个样子去对待他()

 

Listening: 一个实验,一组随机挑选的小学生,告诉教师他们(她们)都是是精挑细选的优秀生。老师因此努力教学,经常鼓励,小学生短期内成绩提高。

2013.4.6NA

4

阅读:conceptinvasion meltdown。这个definition我只记了:animals can help plant species to reproduce and spread, 应该还得加上入侵的部分。

听力:examplefig tree。有人把这种树种到yard里,但是它就只长在这yard里不会传播到别的地方,因为这树本来是在Asia Asia有一种insect叫什么wass(音)的来传播他的seed才能reproduce。然后这种insect accidently 也到了美国以后,fig tree就开始reproduce到各个地方了。然后他就在一些区域dominant了,那里原本的植物就没了

2013.5.17NA

口語四:closeness-communication bias:人们以为自己对亲近的朋友交流更有效实际上不是的,可能对陌生人更有效因为人们认为朋友会自动了解自己的意思基于相同的经历。例子是教授叫一个老朋友jack和一个不太熟悉的新教授聚会,在一个意大利餐馆。他告诉jack the Italian restaurant,以为jack知道是哪里。但是告诉新教授全名。结果后者到了准确的地点jack去了另一家餐馆    

2013.11.9NA     

口语四:【名词解释】:scope creep: ask for more than origin

【教授举例】:教授举了他 friend 的例子。他的 friend开了一个建筑公司,要帮一个女的建一个 fence yard, 他们只是 verbally 说了,没有签合同。快完工时,女的说要他paint white friend 说只是帮忙建 fence,女的说聘请他的时候以为还会帮忙涂颜色。经过争论后,friend 答应帮她免费paint white, 但是很不高兴。

2013.12.6NA    

口语四:阅读:大概介绍了定义:人们通常为了遵守事先制定好的procedure,结果出现了事与愿违(unsuccessful)的情况。

听力:教授举例:school policy that students shouldn't be late,老师们为了让学生能够接受完整的教育(attend the entire class),规定学生按时到校上课,否则就不能进班,但是这个规定的结果就是,一旦学生迟到了,他们就一堂课都上不了,导致的结果反而更糟糕。

 

 

 

2011.10.16ML/2010.9.25NA

口语四

animals living in different places share the same eating hobby。住在AfricaAustralia有两种动物。它们虽然生活在totally different places,但是它们吃东西的方法一样,就是有一种什么东西,很难吃到。它们都是make a hole, and then put their tongue in it。就是这样吃到的。    

2014.6.21ML

TASK4

R: The term is the subject-expectancy effective, it means that the thoughts of people will depends on what they already know.

L: (The professor) Well, today we will talk about the subject-expectancy effective. I will give some examples to illustrate this term. For instance, a manager told a group of officers that they will be offered more works and they should be more concentrated on it. However, the amount of works was the same as the amount before the officers were told, the results showed that the officers work harder before they were told, just because they knew there will be more works. Another experiment is a company gave their fatigue and tired workers a kind of vitamin which can energy people up, but actually the pills are normal placebo, the results showed that the work efficient improved after works took the fake vitamin.

2014.1.25NA

4

阅读:群居动物里都会有个control animal阻止打斗

听力:举了monkey的例子:control animal即使阻止了,他们还会再打

 

2012.7.15ML

Task 4

stimulus reduction。举了那老师教小学班时一个叫STEVEN 的例子,一学生靠窗坐,总是在做作业的时候看窗外,不集中精力。后来老师就把座位调了rearrange,他就集中精力了,学习也好了。

2014.3.29NA

S4

Concept testing. A marketing technique company use to find out if customer likes a new product idea 

Two benefits : to gain information; use feedbacks to improve the product Example. A bicycle company introduced a folding bike. Marketing ppl talk to a group of consumers. Information gathering; consumers like the folding back .

New feedback: wants to have an attached lock And the company adapted the product And the bike sells well.

版本二:

口四:一市场科技公司用concept testing 方法来检测消费者是否喜欢一个新的产品概念。两个好处:一获取信息二使用feedback来提升产品。举例:一个自行车公司推出了一个折叠自行车,用此方法告诉大众

 

 

 

 

 

口语第五

2010.3.20NA

5

问题:推销服务质量,还有一个叫TESTMONIA(音)professor的朋友想做paint work,但是没有生意,

解决方案

1.采用了推销服务质量之后,有人说这个人涂东西极好又耐久,后来很多人都来找他。

2.另外,他还发了图片对比涂了的和没涂的效果,人们看到了,吸引了广大的潜在客户。

2013.5.26ML

Task 5

  Problem: the man is invited to go to a conference in NYC with the professor he’s been working with, but only hotel will be covered, he will have to pay for transportation himself.

  Solution 1: he can buy a flight ticket and fly to NYC

  Pro: meet people, opportunity to learn, more time to be prepared for presentation

  Con: expensive

  Solution 2: take the train to NYC

  Pro: save some money

Con: train ride takes one day, he will miss an important class

2011.6.25ML

5

女生要展出的画忘在家里了,但今天晚上就要展出,且她的朋友要来看,所以想今晚取来,但是今晚她又要review physical test, 没时间。第二个解决方案是可以让她妈妈送来,但是妈妈明天才有空送来,今晚她的朋友就要来看。

2014.7.26NA

5. The woman plans to go home during the winterbreak, however the ticket is so expensive and she hasn't boughtone.

  two solutions: 1. take bus. cheap but 8-hour trip very painful. 2. take 3 am flight. but may interrupt their parents'sleep and inconvenient for them to pick up her.

2014.2.28NA

S5女生刚刚搬家要开暖房聚会,得收拾屋子。但明早她约了朋友去参观博物馆,要耽搁一天,发生了冲突。男生建议可以今晚收拾房间,但女生担心明天逛博物馆会累,或者可以不去博物馆,但女生担心朋友不高兴,而且展览机会难得。

2014.4.5NA

S5

The girl is on her way to buy groceries for the party tonight. She suddenly remembered that there will be a chemistry review session in 10 minutes. Option 1: go to the sessions, but feel bad because she has promised her roommates and they are going to cook. Option 2: leave early at the session to buy groceries. But there's a quiz next week. She's worried that she won't pass.

2014.4.12NA

口语五:

版本一:男生想去参加一个电影鉴赏会,但是那天晚上他cousin要来,他要和他在餐厅吃饭,给他介绍学校的情况。他有两个选择,女孩说她可以陪他cousin吃饭,介绍学校情况,因为她天天晚上都在餐厅吃饭,男孩说让一个不同的人介绍学校确实好,但是他cousin有些害羞,他有点担心他会感觉不舒服,另外一个办法是不去看电影,以后再看,但是他又非常想参加后面的讨论会。女生让他决定好了告诉她

版本二:

Problem

The girl attended the rehearsal of a school play, the rehearsal is time-consuming. She is too busy to take many classes and not doing well in study. She does not know what to do. 

 

Solutions 

1. Drop out of play and focus on study. 

Con: Her major is theater. Attending rehearsal helps her progress. If she quite, it may make trouble for her professor to find someone to replace her and the professor may be angry with her. 

2. Decrease the number of classes, take it next semester. 

Con: She has taken the course for 3 weeks and put in so much work in that class. It is a required course. If she drops the class this semester, she has  to take it next semester.

2012.2.18NA2011.11.26ML/2009.9.11NA

S5

首先, 一个男人说, he works in the bookstore in college. His job is to carry heavy box which contains books. However, last week he went to help his friend to move to the new apartment. He injured himself. Doctor said that he cant carry heavy things for a month. So he went back to talk to his boss, his boss offered him a job to be a cashier in bookstore, however, the schedule for cashier only opens in the morning. he has a physic group study at that time. The physic group is important to him coz he improved grade OOXX. so he went to find a dish washer job in cafeteria which fits his schedule. however, if he takes the job in cafeteria, he wont have the discount to buy books in bookstore, which saved him a lot every semester....

所以最后他还是没结论...

2009.10.25ML/2007.6.24ML

口语五:女生要组织一场舞会organize a school dance,请了个著名乐队band在舞会上演出。但该乐队因当晚有另一场演出show,他们忙不过来they can't play for the dance show,取消canceled了这次演出。

女生自己说出两个方案:1、请另外一个乐队来表演find another band。但女生说其它乐队没这个乐队受欢迎enjoy。怕观众可能会不喜欢。2、还是请这个乐队,但延期举办舞会reschedule the dance to next week。但如推迟一周的话,就临近期末考试final exam了。到那时,学生已在忙着准备期末考试了,同学可能没时间来参加舞会了。

2012.12.8ML/2010.9.24NA

Task5:

男生的band需要找新的场地训练,一个选择是租music studio,但是很贵,第二是music building还是什么,时间上有问题,白天不能练习,晚上也不能练习太晚。。。

  解析:

  问题:男生的band需要找新的场地训练。

  解决一:rent a music studio

  解决二:practice in the music building

答题:陈述问题及两个解决方案之后,可以选择第一个方案,因为在music building里面练习时间很短,并且music studio的费用问题可以很简单地通过成员part-time job来搞定,不用担心经费问题。

2013.4.27NA

5
The boy was waiting for Greg at the student center to return the sociology book he borrowed for tomorrow's test. But Greg was in the library and forgot. Since the boy got a doctor's appointment and needed to leave campus soon, he had to figure a way to return the book, as Greg might need it for the test.
1. The boy can return to campus after a couple of hours and return the book, but Greg might need it before that.
2. The girl he was talking to can help him return the book to Greg in the library, but this may require her to walk across campus and back.

2011.12.18ML

5.manproblem是自己要写一个paper所以要看一本Mystery Novel。但是学校的bookstore关门了。有两个solution

-第一个,男生说自己打了很多电话去找这本书,在一家店找到了,但是要take him couple of hours to get there.而且男生可能会Miss自己的一些课

-第二个,男生说他去年也读过一本mystery novel但是他不喜欢这本书,而且他没有理解透

2009.9.19NA

口语五:

一个singing group 要举办了

男的原本要弄个announcement on newspaper 让跟多人来但是他忘记了错过deadline

女的说那改期吧男的说那个music court很难book 改期可能就要另找location

女的说那贴海报宣传吧男的说考虑一下

2010.1.30NA 

5

一个女生的笔记本电脑坏了,修不好.里面有期末考试的复习文件.

两个建议:

一个选择是rent电脑.但是她觉得太贵了不值.

另一个选择是和roommate共用,就是需要arrange the schedule.问你推荐哪个建议?

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口语五,女生的问题是她的音乐剧明天首映但主演病了,她可以找人来替,但是担心这个人会觉得太紧张而演不好,也可以考虑把音乐剧推迟到下周,但这样观众会觉得很失望。

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

5

一个女生show优越,说老师给他extra week to finish his research paper,  he do not know what to do.

1 solution is to live with parents ,which is two hour away from the campus and hard to get the school resource 而且他们妹妹们要挑逗他说话,distracting her

2live near the campus, 但是房租好贵。

我认为第二个好,钱什么的都是浮云啊,学习最重要的啊。

2012.10.19ML2010.6.13ML

Task 5

男生定错机票have a physics test on that day, two solutions, one is to change the flight, charge $150 fee, another is to ask the prof to change the date of exam, only Tuesday is available, but have another two exams on that day, don't sure if he will be ready for the three exams.

2011.3.19NA/2012.12.2ML /2013.3.19NA

Task5:

【学生困难】:女生要在周末组织一个户外音乐节outdoor music festivalweather forecast却说周末可能会下雨,女生担心活动没办法按时举行。

【解决方案】:男生两个建议:一、postpone到下周末。但是女生怕请来的学生乐队student band players会有人无法出席,他们下周末可能有其他plan了。二、就这个周末,雨势不大shower,在雨中进行,因为有可能只下一会雨,天气还是好的,这样也很特别,女生说怕大家开始看到窗外在下雨就不想来看了。就在窗口看而不买票,她希望提供的是现场的音乐享受。第五题,学生对话,说因为天气原因,一个演唱会就收到影响

男生给出两个建议

2014.9.27NA

Task5:

problem: the woman is planning to move out of campus and she has found an apartment to share with her original roommate, but the apartment is too expensive and she can not afford it. Solution1: ask her roommate to find someone new to share with her. Con: difficult to find a new partner for the roomate with such limited period of time. solution2: get a part-time job in the restarant. con: time- consuming, she may not have enough time to study or socialize with her friends.

2014.11.29ML

5.conversation: 女生向男生诉苦

女的ankle soccer时候break了。不能开车,但是女的还得在高中和其他地方教书。男的问那可怎么办。女的说可以打车啊,但是女的最近没那么多现钱。男的问就没人接你吗。女的说有啊,我的朋友,但是我不想麻烦她,况且我教课的一个小时我的朋友还得在那里等着我啊,她说她可以去咖啡馆学习,但是还是不太妥当。男的回答到:哎呀,她是你的朋友嘛,朋友不就是应该互相帮忙吗,而且是你朋友主动提出来的。

Questionexplain what happened and state which solution you recommend and explain why.

2013.9.28NA

Task5:

一男大学生在computer lab(机房)门口遇上一女生,聊天,男生说他是什么系的学生经常要写paper,不过因为没电脑所以经常在computer lab写,但是下一年他就住校外了,再来校内的computer lab就很不方便了。他想买一台laptop,但是很贵他买不起,有两个方案,第一是在图书馆work extra shift,每周多干五小时活;这听起来挺好,不过他说他很忙害怕学习受到影响。第二是他存了一笔小钱想和几个朋友寒假去NYC玩儿,他可以拿出那些钱出来去买laptop然后寒假就在他宿舍里呆着。

2011.10.14NA

5

女生说父母来参加他的毕业典礼,遇到了麻烦:他们从比较远的地方来需要找地方住下,但学校附近的hotelbook满了。 Solu1:去她的公寓住,但她的公寓非常小,需要rearrange,她要睡沙发了。 Solu2:去远一点的hotel住,但缺点是离学校开车20分钟,需要租车,成本比较高。     

2013.10.25NA  

口语五:听力,一男一女discussing about 女的的problem, 她早上总是错过吃早餐,因为她起不来。她的课在早上8点,她总是赶在提前刚好的时间起床,所以没能时间吃早餐。男的建议她是不是可以买些零食在room里,不用cook的那种,女的说不行,因为她平时错过早餐所以大概只吃2餐,现在再加上一餐虽然是零食,但是still cost她一些钱,不行!然后又自己建议其实她可以swith到另一个在上午晚一点才上的课程。还是同一个professor teach的。

要求总结女的问题以及solution

2013.10.19NA

口语五:男的遇到问题,在公共学校的一门课有15个人,人太多,他不到老师的有效反馈,决定退课,他自己给自己提了两个solutions,一个是换到晚上,人少,但是晚上他可能有作业,课什么的,二是到暑假再选,但暑假他已经有两门课了,可能三门太多了

2013.12.28ML

口语五,学生把车钥匙留在车里了,书也锁在里面了,没书就没办法上课,两个建议:一,找一个locksmith来开锁,但这样很贵;二,向她父母要extra key,但要一两天时间才能送来。

2014.6.28NA

Task5:

问题女生在图书馆写历史paper被人打扰。

  方法一:跟图书管理员report.但是害怕被状告人的mad,或者in trouble

方法二:换地方。但是她所在的区域有所需书籍,换地方版书籍很麻烦。

2014.8.30NA

TASK5

5. Conversation

对话中的女生遇到了困难。她说自己明年毕业,有一个强制的外语要学习才能毕业。但她之后一学期会非常忙,所以在暑假,她选了自己喜欢的Russian online course。可是注册的人不够,被cancelled了。

现在能够有的两个选择:

1)选择在校内上的on-campusRussian课。因为Russian是她喜欢的,这样她就要在学校待上一个暑假了。不能够回去看自己从中国工作回来的姐姐。

2)选择其他的网上外语课程,西班牙语。但是她不喜欢,可是如果上网上课程她就可以回去和她姐姐见面了。

2014.9.6NA

TASK5

5.一个男生和女生讨论spring break,男生要去蒙特利尔Montréal,但是不能afford train ticket.他给女生说但我有两个option: 1. To work extra horse in the next week, maybe another 10 hours to earn enough money,然后女生说哎呀很tough,因为很多exams are coming. 2. To sell his guitar.他两年前买了吉他但一直都没有弹,而且是个很nice 的吉他。那个女生说,是还可以,但是there’s no guitar any more…

2014.9.27NA

5,学生论文不及格,老师让重写,但是他又要参加家庭聚会。

2014.10.17NA

Task5;

Reading:

Reactance: 人们都很重视自己的freedom。因此当自己的行为被limited and自由受限by some rules and regulations时,人们尝试去逃脱这种限制。很多adults and children’s behavior are results of the urge to 重获 freedom. “Reactance” indicates people’s desire to reestablish freedom and break away from(具体的词组不是break away from,但意思一致) the control.

Listening:

两个例子可以验证reactance的现象:1. Imagine a child, who used to play very happily on the playground, having a lot of fun,但是突然有一天his parents don’t allow him to play on that playground again。小孩会感到很upset,于是他会sneak to the playground and play despite his parents’ rule. 2. A town recently ban on a kind of soap because it’s harmful to the environment. 但是这个ban 并没有降低the soap’s ability to clean things.因此人们会感到很upset”why can’t I choose any type of soaps that I want?”因此人们会attempt to buy a large number of this kind of soaps, a lot more than they used to do, 尽管town会限制他们做这件事。

2014.11.8NA

5. Impression management:

Reading: We often control or manage their impression unconsciously in order to convey information to influence how other people perceive us. 这种impression既可以是外表也可以是自己的行为。

Listening: 1.When a student wants to do a presentation, you would see him more formally dressed. Even before he starts, you can feel that he is taking the presentation very seriously and is very responsible. 2. 教授举了个自己的例子,校长第二天想take这个professor ride to school. Right before the day when I will take the ride, I took the trash out of the back of my car and even had my car washed. And when the president got in my car, I changed my radio music into classical music. But I even don’t like classical music.

2014.11.29NA

5.conversation: 女生向男生诉苦

女的ankle soccer时候break了。不能开车,但是女的还得在高中和其他地方教书。男的问那可怎么办。女的说可以打车啊,但是女的最近没那么多现钱。男的问就没人接你吗。女的说有啊,我的朋友,但是我不想麻烦她,况且我教课的一个小时我的朋友还得在那里等着我啊,她说她可以去咖啡馆学习,但是还是不太妥当。男的回答到:哎呀,她是你的朋友嘛,朋友不就是应该互相帮忙吗,而且是你朋友主动提出来的。

Questionexplain what happened and state which solution you recommend and explain why.

2014.12.19NA

5. Girl’s problem: She’s going to give a presentation on her studying-abroad experience, but her laptop crashed and she was unable to show the audience her pictures.

Possible solutions:

1) She has an album book containing some of her pictures taken during her studying abroad, she could pass the book to her audience

- In this way audience will be able to see her photos

- Not all pictures she wants to show are included in the book

- but there are a lot of audience, she’s not sure everyone will be able to see it

2) Her pictures are still in her camera and the camera is in her parents’ house. She could go there to get the camera, and show her audience through the camera.

- She has the time to go to her parents’ house to pick up the camera and come back before the presentation

- But she’s going to use the time to practice her presentation, hushing to her parents’ house will take up the time

2013.6.8NA

5

Problem: his landlord is going to sell the house and there's a buyer who's eager to buy it, he has only a bit over one week to move

  Solution 1: a friend of his is looking for a roommate near his university

  Pro: /

  Con: he can't concentrate on his study

  Solution 2: he can live with his parents

  Pro:/

Con: too far away

2013.6.22NA

5

manroommate要搬到in campus,所以他要找一个新室友。俩solution,一个是前室友的朋友,人不错但是有些messy。第二个是学校里贴advertisement。问你支持哪个,为啥。

2013.11.22NA   

口语五:

Problem:The man was supposed to go to the seaside with friends,but Mary asked him to go help her to move on a short notice because she has to move out by tomorrow. Solution 1:Find someone replace him.Pro:/ Con:It might not work at this last minute.                   

Solution 2:Cancel his appointment with his friends. Pro:/ Con:He has been planning to go for long,and later the weather will turn cold,and they can't go to the beach anymore.

2011.5.28NA

版本一:【1个问题】A  boy needs to read a novel in order to write a paper .However, the library on campus is closed.

2个建议】【1.To go to anther library .But its too far away. lt will

cost a lot time ,and the student will miss some interesting courses.

2.To read another book. However ,the student doesnt like  the book.                                      版本二:【1个问题】他想买一本对她完成assignment有用而且是刚出版的书,但学校的书店要关1个星期,所以打电话问其它地方,但只有1个离学校很远的地方有这本书而且只答应给他hold明天一天,而明天他又有课。

2个建议】

1.如果有另外的书同样可以替代这本书,那就用另一本易获得的书,但男的认为新的可以让他的assignment 更新颖。【2.开车去取那本新书,但他又认为开车去这么远就为了新颖有可能不值得

2011.2.12ML2009.10.10ML

学生会要在期末考试的study break 办个party 让大家放松一下,结果请的乐队主唱病能来演出,option:要么放磁带的音乐,但是没气氛,要么往后推迟几天,但有可能大家考完就走

【学生困难】:

The man wants to hold a party before the final exams to make students get away from books and relieve stress, but the invited band will not available now because lead singer of the band is sick.

【解决方案】:

To cope with this problem, the man faces two possible solutions. First, CDs can be played in the party instead of the live performance by the band. Second, the party can be postponed before the final exam.

【问题】:

Briefly summarize the problem and two possible solutions. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why.

2013.1.18NA     

5男生参加校emergency response team,需要大量训练以达到国家标准,没有时间做literature reading,为此苦恼不已。女生给出两个解决办法:1. 放弃这个队明年再重新加入。男生说不行,如果这样,他队内位置会被别人取代。2. director谈,要求用两学期而非一学期完成训练。  

2013.12.20NA  

口语五:the boy feels sick and is not sure if he should take the trip to the mountain or not

2013.1.26NA

5

一个女的要搬家,想多花时间选选房子

两种方法:暂时住在朋友家里,但又怕不方便,

另外现在看好的一个房子,可以很快搬进去

2013.4.6NA

5

女生的问题是:要打印东西,但自己的打印机坏掉了,只能去图书馆打印。(她live out of campus,所以和roommate一起买了一台打印机。且图书管里住的地方远)

两个解决方案:1,和室友split money在每一台,但是这是她的最后一个semester了,新买了就只会用几个月。2,就坚持这几个月到图书馆打印,打印是免费的,就是来回折腾太浪费时间。

2013.5.17NA

口語五:女生学期末组织聚会,俩选择。一是在fancy restaurant定在周四晚但是一些同学来不了;一是在周五晚所有人都来但是只能在student center聚会喝咖啡吃披萨不尽兴。可以选择第一个因为学期末应该尽兴不能来的人也理解     

2013.11.9NA     

口语五:【学生困难】:女生有个新室友 Linda, 他们的 schedule 不一样。女生会 study 到很晚,Linda 很早睡,因为早上有课。

【解决方案】:

1. 改变自己的作息,早睡早起,但她不是 a morning person, 早上效率没有晚上高;

2. 去图书馆,但是图书馆没有宿舍那么舒服的学习环境。

2013.12.6NA    

口语五:sharing problem with roommate

问题:女生刚搬新家,她跟室友两个人一个星期轮流去一次grocery,然后买回来平均分摊费用。但是问题是她室友买的东西一般都比较贵,但她自己却经常会买on-sale的东西,从而导致她总会pay more than she wants/ has to

解决一:set up budget

缺点:她担心她的室友会因此不能买她真正想买的东西

解决二:stop sharing

缺点:她觉得自己一个人每周都去grocery很麻烦

2011.10.16ML/2010.9.25NA

口语五

 the woman has participated in drama performing, but she is also busy engaging in her majors.所以她不知怎么办好。她自己想了两个办法:一,quitdrama,这样可以focus on学习了。但是这个drama其实也不是just for fun的,她也是需要这个经历的。而且如果她quit了,老师也不好再找人了。二,可以drop一门课,这样就不会那么忙了。但是她修的都是required class。就算drop了,下学期还要学,但现在已经是第三周了,她已经put in so much work in class了。

2014.1.25NA

5

室友要搬走,带走他的tv,他有两个选择:(1)买个新的,太贵。(2)电脑上网看,屏幕太小  

2014.3.29NA

S5

一个男生接他同学笔记本写论文,第二天要交。笔记本突然死ji了。该怎么办?回去找他室友。但是已经很晚了,他应该睡了。而且他也不一定会修。二,第二天起早去comouter lab重写

口语第六

2013.5.26ML

Task 6

  The professor talks about how animals that doesn’t live underwater do to stay under the water. The first way is to reduce movement in order to save oxygen. For example, alligators hunt under water by staying very still, basically no movement. In doing so, it can cut down heart rate, therefore cut down the need for more oxygen. The second way is to minimize the time spent under water. For example, brown pelican dives down to catch fish in the water. It doesn’t go to deep, and it has air sacks that open when in the water. That will help the pelican to get back to the surface as fast as possible for oxygen.

2011.2.12ML2009.10.10ML

顾客买东西一般看产品的两种cues,一种是内在的,由产品自身的质决定,比如果汁好喝所以买,一种是外在的,由产品的外在包装决定,比如果汁的瓶子漂,并且商标fancy,所以买。

In the lecture the professor talks about two cues to judge the qualities of products by consumer. The first clue is the intrinsic cue which means the customers judge the products qualities by their physical characteristic, such as color, texture, sizes. For example, food, customers will think it has good qualities if it has good taste. The opposite cue is the extrinsic cue; the customers don’t judge the product quality by physical characteristics. For example, juice, if the bottle of juice is a good looking glass bottle and has good label, consumers think it has good quality. So products are evaluated by external packs but not the taste of the juice itself.

2014.7.26NA

6. two ways for whales to use sounds to survive in the deep ocean. First, navigate. Hear the refection from objects so that wholes can get right direction. Second obtain food. Since whole are in group, one can call other whales if it find any fish.

2009.10.25ML/2007.6.24ML

口语六:教授讲商品product要有utility,顾客才会购买。two types utilities1utility of form形态效用:意思是产品要满足人们的特殊需求have features customers need,人们才会买。例:人们要买防寒服winter coats made of fabric material and feather是因为冬天要保暖keep worm、防雨be waterproof2utility of place地点效用:意思是要在正确的地点销售产品the product should be at the place where customers need it。例:防寒服winter coats,如果在Alaska where is very cold一定好卖,因为那里的人非常需要防寒服。如果在热带岛屿tropic island就没人买,那里的人根本用不着防寒服。

2010.3.13ML

6

【讲课要点】:During long distance travel, animals navigate themselves by two ways

方法1by sight:举例:美国一Ducks(野鸭)fly at night. Stars help them to distinguish their own flying way. They can distinguish different groups of stars.

方法2by smell: For example, Salmons(大马哈鱼)track a unique scent released by plants or something in the river/stream to get to游回它们出生地sites to 产卵lay eggs. Every stream has its unique scent because of the chemicals released by soil and plant.

2011.12.18ML

6.planningdrawbacks

-plan excessively, too detailed

example: professor去年做了一个很详细的daily plan,安排好她什么时候该备课,写essay,锻炼 etc. 但是她没办法完成,所以觉得很frustrated

-有很多干扰,人们会把事情想简单

example: professor说自己以前答应过一个朋友帮他看paper, 她本来以外一个周末就可以搞定,但是其实take more time than she expected。她还有去上网查相关的资料,因为她不熟悉这个topic.

2009.9.19NA

口语六:

negative ideation

课堂例子

教授很喜欢chocolate bar但吃太多不好

后来就把它想象成是泥做的来reduce the temptation

2008.9.28ML/2007.8.17ML

S6

讲座讲: 广告商经常利用广告带给观众的emotions 来促进产品销量,

  第一种方式: Produce positive emotions

  eg: 一种shampoo 广告, 一个baby 用这种shampoo, 笑得好甜, the smiling face relax the mother 消费者,尤其是妈妈们就将使用这种shampoo和自己宝宝和自己愉快的经历联系起来,进而购买.

  第二种方式: Produce negative emotions

  eg: 一个man car 在雨天broke down , 他没有手机,只好在雨中不行前往公用电话厅打电话求助. 观众自己就会worry about themselves, they don’t even want to imagine how terrible the situation is, 然后自己就赶快去买了.

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口语六,城市温度比农村高的原因。一个是城市中的机器会释放各种热量,比如汽车释放尾气和热量,另外是城市当中黑色的东西更多,更易吸收光并转化为热量。比如concrete制成的深色马路和街道。

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

6讲小动物们都喜欢成群结队出去玩去保护自己,捕食他们的动物有两个方法去吃他们。

1 找到一个有着不一样颜色的小动物,然后定位他,就吃他。例子是memo神马的 someone in the group will have unique color from others, the predador will go after him

2 他们还会把这些group break up, 然后小动物们紧张了,逃跑了,队伍就散了,然后捕食者就找一个group 去追神马啊。

2013.12.14NA

口语六:6. telecommute。教授讲到现在的公司为了追求利润经常会采取telecommute的方式,意即通过emailtelephone工作,而不再到办公室去上班。之后重点讨论了两个advantage

首先,telecommute为公司带来了很多”overhead cut” ,即办公经费的开支。通过减少办公室面积和办公室的设备,公司节约了很多成本。比如说professor姐姐的公司,上一年要求25%的员工以telecommute的方式工作,结果到了年底节省了half million

其次,telecommute留住了以前必定要流失的人才。公司培养一个人才需要花很多的财力人力,而这些人才如果因为计划外原因流动出公司,会对公司造成极大的损失。Telecommute可以使这些员工即使流动到其他城市或国家也能参与工作,从而保证了工作效率并减少了人才方面带来的损失。Professor又举了她姐姐的例子,她姐姐本来要移到Texas去居住,因此不能继续参与原公司的工作,但公司提出可以让她以telecommute的方式继续工作,保障了公司的利益。

2008.5.10ML

口语六:印刷术出现之前的出的出版和阅读都是不一样的......

从前的书是手抄本,抄写员会漏词、多词、或者拼错,导致每本书的内容都不一样,现在你到书店里去,看见一摞一样的书肯定内容都是一摸一样的。从前的书很贵和稀有,你有了一本就会有超多的人到你家里来看,大声地朗读出来。现在大家都买得起书啦,你可以一个人静静地看。

2014.9.13NA

6

女生的老师组织看play和打工时间冲突1.manager请假,但是上次已经请过一次假了2.professor请假,事后看vcd,但是她喜欢和大家一起看 

2013.9.28NA

Task6:

 Psychology!核心是人们做错事都会想一些explanation,而最常见的explanationattributionjustificationAttribution指的是人犯了错然后认为是别的东西导致自己犯错,责任不在自己,又叫excuse。举例是她作为老师,经常收到学生诸如我闹钟坏了这样的迟到理由,表明他们自己不想迟到。Justification指的是人们确实有意识的做了这件所谓的错事,但做这件事的出发点是合理的,可被正名的。举例是她同样收到过这样的迟到理由,比如说某人去参加job interview而没去上课,觉得这个比上课更重要,这样的explanation就是justification,为自己的行为正名。

2014.11.29ML

6. History of newspaper

19世纪,只有少数人卖报纸,但是现在,大家都读报纸,为什么呢。

原因一:advance in technology. It is easy for publisher to produce a large quantity of newspaper. Late in 19th century, new technology made the printing process faster.

原因二:less expensive of newspaper. 因为newspaper publishers had other funding. And they are able to sell newspaper at low price. 因为有了广告,所以可以卖很低的价钱,甚至1 penny

Questionexplain two reasons for the growth in newspaper readership in the late nineteenth century.

2013.12.28ML

口语六,讲如何推断出ancient climates。教授说可以研究化石,因为气候会对形成化石的微生物产生影响。举例,某种有硬壳的shellfish,壳里的镁含量和sea water temperature有关,温度高的时候镁的含量就高。所以就可以通过对比这种矿物质在化石和现在那个地方的shellfish壳里的含量,然后就知道气候变暖了还是变冷了。

2012.12.1NA 

6

关于migrating animal's characteristics的,

一是这些migrating animal由于要做长途迁徙to reach their destination,会更focus,不会被别的东西easily disturb到,相对来说,local birds一发现food就很瞎乱兴奋。。。。。

二是migrating animal tend to move in straight line

例子是migrating shark会用geomagnetism来定位直线移动,而local animal就倾向于瞎乱移动来找食物。。。。。。。

2011.10.14NA

6

讲鸟类迁徙之前都会做一定的调整和改变,分两方面:1body change:长途飞行需要大量能量,为了减少停下来的次数,会提前储存能量,吃多点存脂肪。2,习惯的改变:为了应对路上碰到的敌人,一些独来独往的鸟会开始social,结成group一起飞,比较安全。

2013.10.25NA  

口语六:biological 的课程

一群群居的动物,易感染疾病,以一个动物好像叫ann的为例,说明他们如何去defense会感染疾病。

1)。。。。。。sorry 脑子短路。。。。。。忘了。。。

2)他们会经常自我清洁,通过自我清洁可以避免感染。

要求概括一下课堂的内容,表述他们如何去defense的。

2013.10.19NA

口语六

publicity 相对 advertising 的优点,一是更便宜,比如游戏厂商在电脑杂志上发表文章比广告便宜,二是可信度更高,电脑杂志如果描述一下那个电脑游戏,购买者更容易接受,相对于广告

2014.2.28NA

S6telecommute的好处,一个更加绿色环保,不用开车,减少空气污染,另一方面给乡村居民提供工作机会,大公司也可以招收远距离的乡村居民。

2014.4.5NA

S6

How do consumers reduce risks when purchasing?

  (1) do a thorough research. Eg. If you want to buy a computer, you can search online to see which manufacture is better and see the reviews of other buyers.

(2) stay loyal to one brand or company. Eg. If you have bought a car that functioned well and lasted long, you want to stay with this company next time.

2014.4.12NA

版本一:为什么有的事情会记得比别的事情清楚。两个原因,第一是如果你对这个事情预先有所了解,你就会记得比其他事情清楚,事后也更容易回忆起来。比如你去参加一个古典音乐会,如果你对古典音乐有比较多的了解,一年后让你回忆这个音乐会,你就很容易记起很多它的细节,相反你可能什么也想不起来。第二个原因是某些事物可能和其他的事物有比较大的区别,这些不同的事物更容易被记住,比如你去上大学里的一节大课,一年后让你回忆,你可能记起来的是那个个子非常高的男生,或是非常聪明的一个女孩。

版本二:

Film makers can choose two angles of camera to build characters images. 

1: low angle, just like children look up to adults. It makes a character look really huge and powerful. For example, using low angles to make Queen Victoria look more prestigious. 2: high angle, put the character in a big environment, and make character look small and weak. For example, shooting a man lost in a vast desert from high angle makes the character look hopeless and weak.

2014.6.28NA

Task6:

dinner为例子阐述两种theater对观众的不同。在theater里,一种是player表现的观众不存在,比如在吃饭,那就认认真真在吃饭,和下面没交流。一种是styleplayer意识到观众的存在,还是比如吃饭,player可能问下面观众food smell good? 甚至invite audience to join them…"

2014.8.30NA

TASK6

6.关于living in group的不足

两个群居的不足和例子:

1)Visible to predators and easy to be captured. 单独的时候就不会这样。比如沙丁鱼,当他们一直单独行动的时候,就不容易被发现然后被吃。但是当他们成群的出现,就会有鲨鱼捕食他们。

2)Carrying the young. 很多生活在一起,不容易找到自己的小孩。比如成百上千的bats蝙蝠生活在洞里,当他们出去捕猎回来想给自己的小孩喂食的时候,找不到。可能给别的小孩喂食,而自己的却没被喂到。

2014.9.6NA

TASK6

6.Why companies will change their product packaging.

1.In response to technology. 技术发展会有new material出现,举了牛奶的例子,牛奶以前是装在glass bottle卖,后来技术发展,出现了塑料,于是牛奶现在装载plastic box里面卖。

2.为了更好与其他公司竞争。比如会改变包装的size。又是牛奶,其他公司已经改变了自己juice啊软饮料啊的包装,变成portable size,让人民可以再车里啊路上喝,于是牛奶也变了,由以前的large bottle变为现在这样。

2014.9.27NA

6animal foraging.

2014.10.17NA

Task6;

历史课

以前early human beings是去hunt wild animal for meat,但是大概10000年前开始驯化(domesticatecontrol animals. The domestication of animals有很多benefits,下面我们来说一下:1. The domestication of animals will provide consistent and reliable source of meat. Early people去打猎,有时打得到,但often打不到猎,而把animal养在身边可以随时随地有吃的,举了goat山羊的例子,山羊是最早被驯化的动物。Goats can be easily controlled and can be organized by the heard and move with the people。因此这个source非常reliable2. The domestication of animals will supply a variety of food other than meat. 又举了山羊的例子,goats produce milk. People can collect milk and drink. Also people can process milk and make it into yoghurt and cheese.

2014.11.8NA

6. Environmental science:

我们一直在寻找保护环境最好的方式,但有一种就是Moral suasion道德劝告,it means to appeal to people’s moral sense of duty, their civic duty, to make people voluntarily to protect the environment.教授说有两个例子,1. 比如Smokey the Bear(全班笑。这个查了一下背景资料:就是1944年美国的一个防止森林火灾的propaganda标志),a bear dressed like a man, 举着标语说“please don’t hurt my animal friends” or “please don’t start forest fire”. People will become sensitive to it and their awareness to protect the environment will be promoted.2. recycle campaign. People often recycle.但是怎样保证high compliance,就需要moral suasion,告诉你这样做是正确的。When you see your neighbors are recycling, you will follow what they do.

2014.11.29NA

6. History of newspaper

19世纪,只有少数人卖报纸,但是现在,大家都读报纸,为什么呢。

原因一:advance in technology. It is easy for publisher to produce a large quantity of newspaper. Late in 19th century, new technology made the printing process faster.

原因二:less expensive of newspaper. 因为newspaper publishers had other funding. And they are able to sell newspaper at low price. 因为有了广告,所以可以卖很低的价钱,甚至1 penny

Questionexplain two reasons for the growth in newspaper readership in the late nineteenth century.

2014.12.19NA

6. Lecture: Two advantages about Beta Testing method using in business

A beta test is a testing that gives the intended audience some samples to try the product out.

1) Getting feedback from the customers

The producer can get feedback from the customers who try the product out, so that they will know what aspect they didn’t do well. Take a camera for example, the camera company may give some professional photographers samples to test how well the new camera work. If after the testing the photographers report the flash doesn’t work well because it produces extra light, the company will know they need to work on the flash to make it more desirable.

2) Providing free advertisement

If the testing audience think the new product is satisfactory, they will have a positive evaluation about it and tell others how well the product is. If it’s not perfect at first and the company spends effort to fix it, they usually have a better evaluation. Take the camera. After the company fixes the flash, the photographers will think the camera is now very good, and they will tell other photographers about the camera, encouraging others to be willing to buy

2013.6.8NA

6

Animal adaptions

  physical adaption

  举例:动物表皮黑色,and it can absorb more sunlight for the heat to get into the body

  habit adaption

  举例:动物站在冰块上不用两只脚,只用脚后跟减少和冰接触的面积

      

2013.6.22NA

6

讲广告让受众接受产品的两个方法,一个是在合适的时间让受众看到,举的例子是玩具车的广告要在孩子们喜欢的电视节目的时间段播出,第二个好像是要和实际的产品结合(记不清了),举得例子似乎是他女儿和朋友们有个小玩具,然后最近要有关于这个玩具的节目上映了。

2013.11.22NA   

口语六: 2 mechanisms to make it hard for the predators to predict the next behavior of the animals.                

Example 1Squid don't go straight,and the speed is unsteady,they choose to move in a zigzag pattern which makes it extremely difficult for the predators to anticipate its behavior.                    

Example 2:Squid can change into different colors,they can change from pink to blue then to white,for instance,the predators stares at something pink but all of a sudden it change into blue,it confuses the predators thus gives the squid a chance to escape.

2009.11.14ML/2008.3.29NA

口语六:动物保护自己的两种方式:装得对侵犯者很危险;直接装死。以蛇为例:狐狸来冒犯蛇,蛇就装得比实际危险,吓跑了狐狸;遇到其他的某些入侵者,蛇可能装死,入侵者因此失去兴趣。



2013.12.20NA  

口语六:土地的sault accumulation问题,Solution 1; pipe把多余的水引走,S2; 种植resistantcrop, 这些crop对于盐有抵抗力

2013.1.18NA     

6商品价格与需求成反比关系。商品价格升高,需要下降,比如咖啡。但有例外,如面包。面包在18世纪的英国是最便宜的主食。相比肉而言,无论面包怎么贵需求量都不会下降。价格上涨反而会使得更多的人去买面包。

      

2013.1.26NA

6

动物眼睛扑捉猎物的两个feature,一个能够分辨颜色,另外一个是穿透力,能通过branch看到一些东东。

2013.4.6NA

6

terminfomercial。就是在电视上的长的商品广告,telephone number都有显示在屏幕上那种两个advantages1,有足够的时间介绍所有feature

example:卖home exercise machine. infomercial里可以介绍他的各种使用方式让更多人购买,但如果是short commercial就没有足够的时间。2,因为viewers是可以在广告过程中就打电话进来购买,这样可以直观的告诉商家这个广告是不是有效。example:还是那个machine,如果很少人在广告时打电话进来的话,厂家就可以明确地知道这款广告不是那么奏效,然后就可以修改以卖出更多的商品。

2013.5.17NA

口語六:动物如何在睡觉时躲避捕食者袭击?两种方法。一是利用环境警告,比如lizard在睡觉时选择大树的长枝尽头这样敌人靠近树枝摇晃发出警告;而是自己大脑部分休息,比如一种鸭子可以睡觉时睁一只眼闭一只眼以监视敌人

2013.11.9NA     

口语六:森林大火一般对生物有harmful的影响。比如很多动物在大火中会快速迁徙。但是森林大火对生物也有时候beneficial。举了两个例子:第一个例子森林大火对predator比较有利。更有利于他们抓住prey。比如火鸡。火鸡在森林大火中可开心了。他们可以轻而易举地看到prey。他们的prey会快速flee,所以火鸡可以快速抓到他们的猎物insects,而不用苦苦地peck the ground to look for the insects。第二个例子是beetlesBeetles喜欢森林大火因为他们喜欢的树平时会分泌毒素。Beetles无法在树上生存。但是大火把树烧死后Beetle就可以尽情地在上面产卵和抚养后代。

2013.12.6NA    

口语六:Two reasons for plants to avoid sunlight.

       Example 1:Some plants need to cling to something in order to get its moisture and nurients and etc.these places are often in shades,for example vine.

       Example 2:Some plants need to conserve moisture,intense exposure to the sun would decrease the moisture,like bean plant.

2014.1.25NA

6保留住顾客的strategy

  (1)设立rewards program,给打折和优惠,比如:买10个三明治送一个免费的三明治

(2)product design。公司的产品要配套使用,比如:电子游戏公司的游戏机和游戏光盘只能配套用

2014.6.21ML

TASK6
Birds migration at a long distance.
  1) First reason is that birds will eat enough food to store energy. For example, humming bird eat much food to store energy a few weeks before the migration, the food they eat will turn into body fat and its weight can added at least 40%
2) Second reason is to take advantage of the air flow. For example, hawk can save energy by soaring-flying without flapping wings by thermals.

2014.3.29NA

S6

生物课,老师讲动物怎么改进来使用南极寒冷气候。两个例子,一,北极熊爪子上很厚的毛。这样full speed跑起来也不会滑倒

二,一个叫wol ris 还是什么的动物,在冰下游泳,为了make break hole through the iceadapt出了很长的牙

      

2010.9.26ML

6

应对有生命威胁的情况,animals survive有时靠individual自己就行,有时还要靠group。动物形成群体form a group保护自己生存下去,有两种ways:第1种、gather together取暖:帝企鹅empire penguins到了冬天就迁移到inland、那里特别冷。为了survive,帝企鹅会bunch together to form a concentrated group to keep warm,并take turn to stand outside to combat the extreme cold and get warmth。第2种、围在一起to form a concentrated group to survive the predator:八哥starlings遇到predator——falcons攻击时会挤在一起,形成一个solid mass。大的在外面,小的在里面。如果a falcon hits them with one of its wingsits wing will be injuredthe falcon就没办法catch any single starling了。

2013.12.21ML/2011.1.22ML

城市温度比农村高的原因。一个是城市中的机器会释放各种热量,比如汽车释放尾气和热量,另外是城市当中黑色的东西更多,更易吸收光并转化为热量。比如concrete制成的深色马路和街道。

2014.1.12ML/2010.10.22NA

Task6:

两个破坏环境的策略,一个是浪费资源做没用的广告,比如关于厨房装修的广告对教授就没有用,因为他在租房,另外一个是影响环境美观的广告


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